Indian Polity for UPSC Exam Super-Simplified

As a serious UPSC aspirant ought to know about Indian Polity as if it were the brochure about your future employer. Polity is interesting as well as important because it will teach you about how your future organization functions and the legal background which you will be embedded in, as a civil servant.

Polity includes all the rules of your own employment but also rules about everything else in the country- how the President of India is elected, how local governments function-basically, a blueprint for how to make the entire government structure a country. This includes mechanisms of how power should be distributed and the bodies which will wield it.

Lok sabha Indian Polity

Don’t you want to know how the country you wish to serve is run and where you fit into the scheme of things? How can you change the system unless you know what the system is? Polity is all about that system.

It is in this system in which you will function as one cog in a very large machine. No surprise that as a civil servant your primary responsibility is the efficient implementations of policies- how these policies, rules and laws are made is mentioned in detail in Legislative organ of the system.

The Constitution of India is the rulebook which contains details of how the system functions. The constitution is a strange type of rule book-one which contains within it mechanisms for its own modifications (constitutional amendments).

Polity is also highly correlated with current affairs, and you should be updates about recent laws, changes and policies.

Indian polity constitution

The recent farm laws issue is a case in point where some policies of the government came in direct conflict with a section of the stakeholders. The fact that sections of people with common interest can congregate and protest is in fact, a fundamental right included in the constitution.

This right is one of many- some like the right to life Art.21 has undergone many revisions and updates as ‘life’ itself has evolved in our times.

How to prepare Indian Polity for UPSC

Know that you can not capture all the details in one reading alone. The process takes long and should be done in a scientific manner- this is what the HEXATASK METHOD comes to the rescue.

The Hexatask method is a series of 6 steps that takes you through all the dimensions of learning to cover for the UPSC Exam. These steps include all the elements of the best quality learning possible as revealed by research in the Cognitive Sciences.

The 6 tasks of the Hexa-task method are Big Picture Formation, 1st Reading, 2nd Reading, Analyse PYQs, Revision, and Testing. Completing these tasks while learning a subject will ensure optimal preparation for the UPSC exam for Polity. 

Strategyzer for Polity
The Ultimate UPSC Navigator is the Ultimate weapon for the UPSC Exam. It is your planner, scheduler, guide, roadmap and all-purpose tool for the UPSC journey. It includes the entire UPSC syllabus organized in a scientific way. QR codes which take you to subject-wise resources, a powerful Strategyzer which breaks the UPSC syllabus into 102 scientifically determined challenges and a LOT more. More info is here-

What you need to do to begin with is BIG PICTURE FORMATION for Indian Polity. The Masterclass linked below will do just that.

In this Masterclass, you will undertake a fascinating thought experiment and go over the entire terrain of Indian Polity from the Preamble to the Panchayati Raj in a way which will surprise and delight. Those ready to challenge themselves and obtain a strong hold on Polity will find this Masterclass to be a panacea.

How to read Laxmikant for Polity

Indian Polity can seem like an endless list of facts to painstakingly memorize from Laxmikant. But it is something much more fascinating and easier than you would have thought.

dr strange indian polity
(A real picture of Dr. Strange learning his magic tricks)

Throughout the Laxmikant book or any other book on Indian Polity, you will run into innumerable facts, names, dates, articles and lists. Do not be intimidated by these. There is a way to cut through the jungle of facts.

Every chapter of Laxmikant or any other Polity book will be nothing but a combination of the following-


The Rationale is the underlying reason behind the organization ( Supreme Court, Council of Ministers, CBI, UPSC, CAG etc) or the Functionary (Vice-President, Chief Minister, Speaker, CJI etc) or the Constitutional idea ( Fundamental Rights, writ jurisdiction, DPSP etc)

The History refers to the evolution of the idea to which has led to the current day point. For instance, the Word ‘ Secularism” was added by the 42nd Amendment Act to the Preamble in 1976 while the Right to Education was made a fundamental Right by adding Art 21A to the constitution more recently in 2002.

The Details are the Article number, the content of the articles such as the list of DPSP, Fundamental duties etc. criterion such as the types of majorities needed for passing motions in parliament etc.

Centre-State relations is a major theme of balance of power in India. Many debates in current affairs revolve around this delicate relationship
  • You must only focus on the Narrative and Big Picture Formation in the beginning. Deduce they WHY and the WHAT will follow automatically.
  • You will need multiple readings and should not expect to learn Indian Polity satisfactorily in less than 2-3 readings
  • With repeated readings, more and more details will begin to get committed to memory.

Refer to the Masterclass as many times as you need to do to capture the essence of Indian Polity.

Stay focused!

-Ravi Kapoor, IRS

10 thoughts on “Indian Polity for UPSC Exam Super-Simplified”

  1. Q1
    Most of the features of the Constitution of India are borrowed from other constitutions of the world but not all like universal adult franchise. Though the features are borrowed from others but we view all the different constitutions and extracted all the good parts of these. We make our Constitution that united the India with large diversity
    Our fundamental rights are the basic human rights with enables the person to live with liberty and dignity. The essential rights of a person to live equal with all others make them fundamental. The distribution of the power of govt. cannot overcome the fundamental rights normally but only in restricted manner
    Indian Constitution is mixture of rigidity and flexibility. Some provisions are too rigid like preachment of president,amendment of the Constitutionand some are flexible like changing the name, area, boundaries of the indian territories
    The most common debate between fundamental rights and dpsp that which is prior.
    The answer is fundamental rights though Constitution itself gives the provision of justiciable nature of fundamental rights while no such provision regarding dpsp

  2. Q.1- our Constitution has indeed taken reference from existing Constitution of the world, but it has not borrowed the Constitution as it exists.
    Q. 2- The fundamental Rights are defined in part of the Indian construction from article 12 to 35 and applied irrespective of race, place of birth, religion, caste, gender and equality of opportunity. Fundamental rights are the basic human rights enshrined in the Constitution of india which are guaranteed to all citizens
    Q. 3 – The Indian Constitution is not rigid because a balance makes indian Constitution, a living document that the responds to changing time along making it durable to protect the basic tenet of democracy
    Q. 4 – Fundamental rights are justiciable, as can be enforced, whereas the directive principal are not justiciable, in that, they are not enforceable in court of law. While fundamental rights established poltical democracy, directive principal set social and economy democracy.

  3. 1Q.
    Ans: Although certain portions of other countries’ constitutions have been copied, we cannot argue that it is simply a patchwork of borrowed pieces because many things have been introduced, discussed, and amended to ensure the system’s flawless operation.Neither too stiff nor too flexible is the Indian constitution.For legislation, the Indian Constitution allows the judiciary to work both together and separately.
    Ans: Fundamental Rights are derived from the American constitution and are granted to every citizen of India. To make it fundamental, the constitution includes A32 (right to constitutional remidies), which makes it justiciable in court if it is violated.
    Ans: The Indian constitution is not overly rigid; it has been carefully crafted to outline the roles and responsibilities of organisations and citizens toward the nation in a well-organized manner, outlining what must be done in uncommon or extraordinary circumstances.
    Ans: Fundamental rights are justiciable, and any victim can take his case to the Supreme Court for the abolition of any of his fundamental rights, which must be enacted by the administration and legislature in strict accordance with the law. DPSP, on the other hand, is primarily concerned with citizens’ moral obligations and is not subject to legal action. Fundamental rights are justiciable, and any victim can take his case to the Supreme Court for the abolition of any of his fundamental rights, which must be enacted by the administration and legislature in strict accordance with the law. DPSP, on the other hand, is primarily concerned with citizens’ moral obligations and is not subject to legal action.

  4. Following are my views:
    1. It is right that brighter aspects have been borrowed from constitution of other countries, but we can’t say that it is simply a mere patch of borrowed pieces because a lot number of things have been included, discussed ,amended for smooth functioning of the system.

    2.To make fundamental rights fundamental the constitution itself provides a provision of A32(right to constitutional remidies) which makes it justiciable in the court if violated.

    3. Indian constitution is not too rigid, it is carefully designed specifying the roles and responsibilities of organization and citizen towards the nation in a well organised manner explaining things what need to be done in extraordinary/unusual situation.

    4.Q4.Fundamental rights is justiciable whereas Directive principle is non justiciable.Directives has moral obligation on states to implement. At present FR enjoys supremacy over DPSP,which does not mean DPSP cannot be implemented.This can be done without affecting the basic structure which is given in kesavanda barati case 1973.

  5. Ans. 1 – No indian Constitution is not mere a patchwork. It has some salient features too.
    For example-
    (a) Indian constitution is niether too rigid not too flexible.
    (b) Indian Constitution enables the jusrisdiction to work is integrated as well as independently for legislation.

    Ans. 2- The provision of the Constitution that fundamental rights are justiciable make them fundamental because they cannot be compromised in any situation except in National emergencies.

    Ans 3- No, Indian constitutions lies in between flexibility and rigidity because of fundamental rights are justiciable while that of DPSP fundamental duties are not.

    Ans 4- Fundamental rights are justiciable and any sufferer can go directly to supreme Court for abolishion of any of his fundamental right it has to be inacted strictly by executive and legislature. While, DPSP has more of a moral duties of the citizens and is not justiciable by the judiciary.

  6. Q1.Though borrowed from various constitution ,Indian constitution is unique as it is modified according to our needs.Most of our constitution is drawn from Government of India Act 1935 like federal scheme,office of governor,judiciary etc…our constitution is blend of constitutions of British,US,Irish,Canada,Australia,Germany,USSR,France,SouthAfrica and Japan.
    Q2.Fundamental rights is the magna carta of India.It is enforceable and justiciable by law.They are guaranteed and protected by Constitution. It is fundamental because it is essential for the development of individual.These are provided in Right to equality,freedom,against exploitation, freedom of religion,cultural education,Right to property,constitutional remedies. However right to property has been removed by 44th CAA .It is made a legal right under article 300A.
    Q3.The Constitution of India is neither rigid nor flexible,it is mix of both. Article 368 provides for two types of amendments
    1.special majority with2/3rd members present+50%majority
    2.special majority+consent of half of states.
    Some provision can be amended by simple majority which does not comes under A368
    Q4.Fundamental rights is justiciable whereas Directive principle is non justiciable.Directives has moral obligation on states to implement. At present FR enjoys supremacy over DPSP,which does not mean DPSP cannot be implemented.This can be done without affecting the basic structure which is given in kesavanda barati case 1973.

  7. Q.1
    Ans) Indian constitution is the lengthiest and bulkiest written constitution in the world,constituted by ransanckin constitution of all known constitution from countries like British,Irish, American,Canadian,etc,and choosing the best and modifying it according to the needs and conditions which is best suited for for our country. It also derives major portion of it from the government of India act 1935. So it is not a mere patch of borrowed peices.
    Ans) Fundamental Rights are the basic rights which are given to every citizen of india and it is derived from the American constitution. To make it fundamental the constitution itself provides a provision of A32(right to constitutional remidies) which makes it justiciable in the court if violated.
    Ans)The Indian constitution is neither too rigid like the American constitution nor too flexible like the British constitution. It is a mixture of flexibility and rigidity because some provision requires normal majority to be amended while some provision needs special majority to be amended.
    Ans) F.R are the basic rights given to every citizen in india which are justiciable in the court if violated wheareas DPSPs are directives give to the state for better governance of the country and these are non justiciable. When conflict arises between F.R and DPSP state tries to assert the supremacy of the DPSPs over F.R but supreme court upheld the validity of F.R to be enshrined as basic structure of the constitution which cannot be violated.

  8. 1. We can say that some parts of the constitution is borrowed from other countries like -Fundamental rights from USA, DPSP from Ireland and most of it is from Government of India Act of 1935. While reading and analysing from different constitutions of the countries all over the world our great leaders have taken reference and mold the ideas according to the requirements and values of Indian society.For e.g.-Secularism, this word is taken as a reference from France as in France and other European countries their is a practice of hard Secularism but due to huge diversity in religion our Indian Constitution provides freedom to some extent.
    2. Because of the two reasons- first is they are enshrined in the constitution which guarantees them and second is they are justiciable (enforceable by the court).
    3. Yes, the Constitution is rigid because some special provisions are required for its amendment.
    4. The conflict between Fundamental Rights and DPSP’s can also be seen as a conflict between the individual and the state. When the parliament tried to assert the supremacy of the state and DPSP over Fundamental Rights the Supreme Court uphelds the rights of individual as enshrined in the Constitution by giving appropriate judgement like in Golak Nath Case 1967 and now the Hijab controversy in karnataka.

  9. 1) Is the Indian Constitution a mere Patch-work of borrowed pieces from the constitutions of other countries?
    The Constitution of india’s provisions were drawn from many countries existing Constitution as well as the government of india act 1935. Like they take concept of preamble from USA, they inspired by French Revolution idea of equality, liberty and fraternity and many more. Our Constitution maker take idea of federation but it has federal in form but unitary in spirit. That’s we can say that, Our Constitution maker didn’t borrowed it or copied it from other countries, however they take it as reference and make it according to our requirements and values of indian society.

    2) Which provision in the constitution makes the fundamental rights, ‘fundamental’ and how?
    Fundamental rights are rights which based on the basic necessities of the people of society. Like right to equality, right to freedom, right to freedom of religion, cultural and educational rights, constitutional remedies etc. These all rights given so that state cannot encroach upon citizens for personal means and work or operate in limitations. Also if its violated than one can directly go to higher courts for remedies. These makes fundamental rights, ‘fundamental’

    3) Is the Indian Constitution too rigid? Why or why not?
    There are two types of Constitution right now present: one is written, second is unwritten. Or rigid or flexible. For the rigid Constitution it requires special procedure to he followed for any change in Constitution while in flexible these process will become more easier. The Constitution of india is neither rigid nor flexible. It has both types of provisions.some provisions of the Constitution can be changed/amended by simple majority(alterations of boundaries of states) , some by special majority of parliament and some even required special majority of parliament plus agreement of half of total state(generally in state subjects) So by these we can say that our Constitution is not so rigid nor flexible.

    4) What is the debate between Fundamental Rights and DPSP and where does the issue stand as of now?
    Fundamental rights are made on the principles and values which required for citizens of india, while the DPSP is form od instructions given to the future government. Unlike FR, DPSP is neither justiciable nor enforceable by the courts. However just like fundamental rights, these principles are fundamental and is important for the governance of the country and it is the duty of state to apply it while making laws. So both FR and the DPSP, is helping the state and the policy to guide them, how law should make or implement. And supreme also held that Constitution is founded balance between the FR and DPSP.

  10. Q.1
    A. Yes the , constitution has patch work borrowed from other countries like us , france , germany etc.
    The Constitution of India has borrowed most of its provisions from
    the Constitutions of various other countries as well as from the
    Government of India Act of 1935.
    Dr. B.R. Ambedkar proudly acclaimed that the Constitution of India has been framed after
    ‘ransacking all the known Constitutions of the World’
    The other provisions of the Constitution have been drawn from other countries example :-
    Canada, Australia, Germany, USSR (now Russia), France, South Africa, Japan

    A. Fundamental Rights borrowed from USA
    Government of India Act 1935 that provision we should make Fundamental rights

    A. Yes the INDIAN CONSTITUTION IS TOO RIGID . Because its require special procedure for its amendments

    A. DPSPs are not enforceable by law, but just directives to the state. But when the state tries to implement a DPSP, there can be a conflict between the Fundamental Rights of citizens and DPSP.
    While Parliament often tried to assert the supremacy of the state and DPSPs over Fundamental Rights, the SUPREME COURT upheld the rights of the individual as enshrined in the CONSTITUTION by giving appropriate judgments.
    now latest there is Hijab controversy happend in which Fundamental right and State Education act are violated

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