upsc ethics

Ethics for upsc : super-simplified and super-powered by superheroes

Ethics for UPSC is GS paper IV in the Mains exam. It is a relatively new addition with no standard textbooks or established ways of preparation. But Ethics is critical to your overall score. And it can be confusing. This article is intended to super-simplify Ethics for UPSC- superhero style.

What do superheroes have to do with Ethics for UPSC? A lot.

Super Hero movies based on comic books ( Avenger’s Infinity Wars, The Dark Knight , Superman etc. ) are effective introductions to Ethics because they encompass ethical dilemmas, illuminate ethical philosophies (often personifying them) . Without boring you.

All superhero movies contain the motifs of power, responsibility, good vs evil and morality. Superhero movies are Ethical debates rendered alive with graphical imagination. If used correctly, superheroes are one of the best ways to understand Ethics for UPSC.

This article is intended to provide a overview of Ethics and related concepts in layman terms for UPSC aspirants. UPSC GS paper IV students before you delve deep into the syllabus- Superhero style.

What exactly are Ethics?

The simplest way to define Ethics is knowing the difference between “right” and “wrong”. Ethics are a set of codes or principles which guide human conduct.

“A man without ethics is a wild beast loosed upon this world.”   

Thus, Ethics are a set of rules which provide a framework to individuals, groups and even society at large for making the right decisions when faced with a set of choices.

However, it must be understood that – what is right and what is wrong varies from situation to situation and person to person. What is right in one situation may be completely wrong in another situation.

The very definition of Ethics raises many questions –

  • What is “right”?
  • What is “wrong”?
  • Who decides what is “good”?
  • “Good” for whom?

Hence , In real life situations more often than not there is no absolute right or wrong and a balance has to be made to arrive at a decision.

As civil servants, you will be acting as moral agents. You will have to face ethical dilemmas day-in and day-out in your life. A study of Ethical theories shall provide you with a framework to evaluate your actions and to arrive at optimum actions.

ETHICAL DILEMMAS

The interplay of right and wrong lead to Ethical dilemmas in real life situations and superhero movies alike.

Ethical dilemmas are situations in which there is a choice to be made between two or more options, neither of which resolves the situation in a manner that is consistent with accepted ethical guidelines. When faced with an ethical dilemma, a person is faced with conflicting choices between two or more actions, all of which they have ability to do but no matter which choice you make it will result in some good and some bad. Hence the dilemma.

UPSC ethical dilemmas

But before we dive deep into ethical dilemmas, it is to be understood that there are no right or wrong answer to these problems. The side you choose depends on your moral orientation.

 In fact, these ethical dilemmas have troubled the greatest of philosophers for ages. From Aristotle to Plato to Immanuel Kant- no one has been able to present one unified theory to encompass every dilemma situation. Each thinker presents his own solutions to the problems. All of which are correct and wrong at the same time.

Such ethical dilemmas have been debated and pondered over ever since Humans broke off from the natural law of the Jungle.  

But our superheroes eat ethical dilemmas for breakfast. 

Let me present to you ethical dilemmas faced by our superheroes and explain the ethical philosophies behind their decisions for you to invoke your sense of Ethics.

Case Study in Ethics for UPSC : The Thanos Problem– One life Vs. Billions

In Avengers – Infinity Wars, the supervillain Thanos is determined to wipe out half of all life in the Universe for which he requires 5 infinity stones. The stakes could scarcely be any higher or more urgent.

One of the Infinity Stones is in Vision’s head who suggests that Scarlet Witch destroy it, kill him in the process.

But Captain America says, “We don’t trade lives.

This idealistic view of Captain America raises one of the most famous and complex of  Ethical dilemmas – Cost of one life vs life of many/more important/more dear to you person(s).

What would you choose to do with Vision? ( Other than going to Wakanda and take help of Black Panther.)

One such real life ethical dilemma took shape during World War II, where dropping of Atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki is justified by American view that it saved millions more lives by bringing the war to a quick end

Do you accept this justification of dropping atomic bomb on the Japanese?

There are various schools of thought regarding moral ethics to guide human conduct. Philosophers have viewed the paradigm of human ethics and morality from various view points.

But there is a caution to be exercised while attempting to answer such ethical questions. You should avoid the fallacy of right away firing your neurons in either favor or against the argument. They are called dilemmas because there is no “right” answer ( Just like in real life situations).

In UPSC GS paper IV a whopping 125 marks are assigned to case studies alone.

Case studies in Ethics for UPSC are nothing but various ethical dilemmas presented to you in the UPSC exam. You are expected to analyze the situation and evaluate pros and cons of each ethical approach. Then you should be able to inform about the moral action you propose in the given situation. Further, you shall be asked to defend your position. As we learnt, there is no ideal solution to such ethical dilemmas. There will always be someone aggrieved by your actions. Thus, you should be able to defend your actions with proper ethical reasoning .

Let us again call upon our superheroes to guide us through three of the most famous ethical paradigms.

Ethics for UPSC : Main Ethical theories

  • Deontology ( Captain America)

The term ‘Deontology’ comes from the ancient Greek “deon” which means “duty.”

Deontology is a duty-based system of ethics which holds that some acts are intrinsically right or wrong regardless of their consequences and that moral agents have duties to follow moral commands or rules regardless of their consequences.

ethics for upsc deontology

The belief that some acts are intrinsically wrong is the central feature of deontological thinking.

Thus, when Captain America says, “We don’t trade lives.” , he is taking a deontological stand. Even the prospect of half the universe being wiped out is not able to justify a deonotologist like Captain America to go against the moral code that No innocent should be sacrificed.

  • Utilitarianism ( Thanos )

Utilitarianism simply stated believes in greatest good for the greatest number.

Thanos plans to randomly kill half of all living beings from the universe so that the remaining half can flourish on the limited resources of the universe.

“It’s a simple calculus,” he says. “This universe is finite, its resources finite. If life is left unchecked, life will cease to exist.”

ethic for upsc utilitarianism

 Following the logic of utilitarianism Thanos may also be termed as a Utilitarian.

 Utilitarianism philosophy was made popular by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill.

Throughout human history horrors have been executed in the name of betterment of humanity serving as living proofs of Utilitarianism.

  • Virtue Ethics ( Superman)

Virtue ethics emphasize the cultivation of good character traits that enable one to be a good person- wisdom, courage, self-control, and compassion are some examples of such traits.

ethics for upsc virtue ethics

As central philosopher of Virtue Ethics , Aristotle defined ‘happiness’ by the Greek term “eudaimonia,” meaning “human flourishing” which refers to excellence of moral and intellectual character and to the well-being brought about by such integrity.

CONSEQUENTIALISM VS NON-CONSEQUENTIALISM

Ethical theories can also be differentiated on the importance given to consequence of an moral action given in deciding human conduct. This is consequentialism.

Thus, utilitarianism is overtly consequential. To a utilitarian , end always justify the means. If the end result leads to maximum good for the greatest number then means do not matter.

On the other hand, Deontology and Virtue ethics are clearly non-consequential.

No matter how glorious may the ends seem, immoral means never justify them to a deontologist or a virtue ethicist.

opposites

But utilitarianism is not be equated with consequentialism. Utilitarianism is a special case of consequentialism. There are other forms of consequentialism such as Hedonism ( Maximum pleasure is the ultimate goal) , Ego ethics ( Ayn Rand’s The Fountainhead) etc.

After understanding the basics framework of ethical theories you should be able to understand why the decisions we make, or someone else makes, are ethical or unethical.

Conclusion

A decision may appears on the surface to be unethical, but when we are aware of the philosophical system used in the decision making, we can then understand the root of the decision and its intended morality. This allows us to view ethical issues from different perspectives and assists us in making informed decisions.

While preparing Ethics for UPSC, rather than trying to arrive at a solution to ethical dilemmas , you should train your mind to be able to appreciate and analyze the situation at hand from different philosophical points of view. This shall take some training of your mind to think differently. As your learn different ethical philosophies you will realize that the most obvious looking solution may turn out to be the most unethical.

becomingias ethics

This super series of articles will provide you with your own super power of logical thinking. Using your new super power you will be able to clearly identify the moral issues involved in the case studies, be able to view the situation from all the ethical viewpoints and will be able to arrive at the optimum moral response to the case study.

Assignment

Task 1: Consider the situations given in the table below. Examine the given decisions and try to ascertain which Ethical theory best describes them.

( U – Utilitarianism ; D- Deontology; VE – Virtue Ethics)

S.No .SITUATIONUDVE
1Gandhiji suspended non-cooperation movement at its peak due to violence at Chauri Chaura.   
2Indian freedom movement leaders accepted partition of the country after they were unable to calm down the communal riots in the country.   
3Gandhiji extended support to British govt. against Germany in World War II   
4Govt. making medical equipments tax free during an epidemic.   
5Your best friend makes a sexist remark as a joke to a lady. You testify against your friend when the lady complaints.   

Task 2: Write in 200 words or less about which of the three superheroes( Capt. America/ Thanos /Superman) is the most Ethical and why? In other words, which Ethical theory ( U – Utilitarianism ; D- Deontology; VE – Virtue Ethics) do you agree with and why.

(You may refer to this excellent discussion by a Harvard professor about the Philosophy of the Avengers)

*While doing the above task, you will experience how closely Ethics for UPSC and the Essay paper are tied to one another. And how getting get good at one can drastically improve the other.

Your assignment should be posted in the comments on the lesson page.

Deadline for Assignment submission is Sunday 6/6/21 before 11:59 PM.

– Amit Kumar Singh ( IRS)

236 thoughts on “Ethics for upsc : super-simplified and super-powered by superheroes”

  1. Task – 1:

    S1 – [D];
    S2 – [U];
    S3 – [D];
    S4 – [VE];
    S5 – [D].

    Task – 2:

    Virtue Ethics (VE):
    Virtue Ethics is the theory that is most suitable due to its ability to lead the individual on the path of generosity and wisdom in life. The values like courage, self-control, compassion, etc. help in the whole and sole development of a person into a real “humane” being. Virtue Ethics is the fundamental aspect through which an individual acquires the ability to analyze the situation and taking adequate decisions that may lead him/her to happiness or “eudaimonia” according to Aristotle. It is by the knowledge of these values only that a person may attain a sense of judgemental consciousness that can assist in very extreme situations.

  2. Task 1

    1. D
    2. U
    3. D
    4. VE
    5. D

    Task 2

    Deotology thinks that some deeds are intrinsically bad like like sacrificing one life to save 100 because it still is like killing.
    Utilitarianism seems to promote selflessness and gallantry but it is applicable to certain situations only. You can not kill one person to donate his organs to five other people. Virtual Ethics says that good character leads to good actions but it also suggests that good people can not do bad things which is wrong. A good example will be the Islamic extremists. They think that they have good character and they are doing good things. In my opinion, which theory is best depends on the situation we are dealing with. While some situations need only one theory applied, most others are a complex interplay of all the theories. Afterall, we can not compartmentalize life all around in few boxes that we have. Most interesting and effective work happening in the world right now is on intersections of different things.

  3. Task 1)
    I) Utilitarianism
    2) Utilitarianism
    3) Utilitarianism
    4) Deontology
    5)Virtue Ethics

    Task2)-
    In my opinion the, the theory of utilitarianism is good, because according to this theory the purpose of morality is to increasing the amount of happiness and pleasure for a large number of people and decreasing the amount of pain and unhappiness . It always focuses on achieving the best and doesn’t focus on whatever means it take to reach to the best result. One more good thing about this theory is that it it has a realistic approach, it always focuses
    Taking the best decision by consider the situation in a realistic way, it also provide flexibility by rejecting the ethical codes and conducts,that consist of taboos, myths, customs , traditions and orders given by leaders which do not suit a particular situation .

    But , I would also like to contradict my point by stating that it is not completely “best ” practice,because
    this theory ignore the means to reach the results. It means that unethical ways can also be adopted for getting best results. From which I am not completely agree with.

  4. Task 1)
    I) Utilitarianism
    2) Utilitarianism
    3) Utilitarianism
    4) Deontology
    5)Virtue Ethics

    Task2)-
    In my opinion the, the theory of utilitarianism is good, because according to this theory the purpose of of morality is 2 to increasing the the amount of happiness and leisure for a large number of people and decreasing the amount of pain and unhappiness . It always focuses on achieving the best and doesn’t focus on whatever means it take to reach to the best result. One more good thing about this theory is that it it has a realistic approach, it always focuses
    Taking the best decision by consider the situation in a realistic way, it also provide flexibility by rejecting the ethical codes and conducts,that consist of tabbos, myths, customs , traditions and orders given by leaders which do not suit a particular situation .

    But , I would also like to contradict my point by stating that it is not completely “best ” practice,because
    this theory ignore the means to reach the results. It means that unethical ways can also be adopted for getting best results. From which I am not completely agree with.

  5. Task 1:
    1)Deontology
    2)Utilitarianism
    3)Utilitarianism
    4)Utilitarianism
    5)Virtual Ethic

    Task 2:
    In my opinion, utilitarianism is the best as it simply stated believes in greatest good for the greatest number. With the positive outcomes, drawbacks are bound to be there with any decision but we can put these drawback aside for a moment and think about the optimistic consequences. For example, we can consider the examples related to sting operation. As already said, every decision which is being taken has a positive as well as negative side. So, it may have compromised with the privacy of the people but it’s in the best interest of the country.In some cases, the ways might be wrong to carry out the process but it does not matter that much when the results are in their best form.
    Virtual ethics are also important aspects which can be considered as they emphasize the cultivation of good character traits that enable one to be a good person but these characters changes from person to person as everybody is unique in their own ways and have different perspective toward different things. Deontology is a duty-based system of ethics which doesn’t care about the consequences as moral agents are bound to follow moral commands. The results may exacerbate the situation to worst.

  6. SITUATION
    1 Gandhiji suspended non-cooperation movement at its peak due to violence at Chauri-Chaura. – Deontology
    2 Indian freedom movement leaders accepted partition of the country after they were unable to calm down the communal riots in the country. –
    Utilitarianism
    3 Gandhiji extended support to British govt. against Germany in World War II – Utilitarianism
    4 Govt. making medical equipment tax free during an epidemic. – Utilitarianism
    5 Your best friend makes a sexist remark as a joke to a lady. You testify against your friend when the lady complaints. – Virtue Ethics

  7. 1) Deontology
    2) Utilitarianism
    3)Utilitarianism
    4)Virtue ethics
    5)Virtue ethics

    The utilitarian principle states that there should be the greatest good for the greatest number. Hence focus on the consequence rather than the means employed. For instance amputation of a body part of a person to save his life. It is at times misused as a way to validate the end like in the case of illegal organ racket or justification of child labour as a means to provide for his family.
    Deontology classifies certain acts as intrinsically right or wrong irrespective of the consequence. It seems like a selfish act and can have a devastating impact like the case of an Indian woman who was denied abortion in Ireland leading to her death. But it also explains certain acts being wrong like corruption. Whatever it may seem to achieve it’s not the right way to go.
    Virtue ethics inspires one to acquire certain characters to decide the right course of action. One intrinsic defect it has is a lack of an action guide. People getting brainwashed and radicalised may seem good to them but it’s not.
    All these moral philosophies have both shades but it depends on the individual and the situation. A refined version of Utilitarian known as rule-utilitarianism can be a way out as it states the greatest good for the greatest number but for the long term and on a larger scale. Like having a voluntary network of organ donation or the current amendment to the MTP Act in India which gives a woman a choice of abortion even after 20 weeks in some extreme situation.

    (Sir, I haven’t seen the movies yet so couldn’t relate but your explanation has cleared my thought process. I hope I have justified the required answer. )

    Regards
    Shagun

    • Nicely written. You seem to have understood the theories correctly.
      But When you give an example try to give one which is clearly known to everyone. Do not try to write about general news events without specifics.
      Simply writing an Indian woman in Denmark is not adequate and proper.
      Always give examples which are well known and possibly including known actors such as great men like Gandhiji or historical events.
      Also understand that I am not discouraging you not to include current events, just that you need to present them in such a way that they do not appear vague to the examiner.

      Overall a great effort.

  8. TASK ONE
    1. Deontological
    2. Utilitarianism
    3. Utilitarianism + Virtue Ethics
    4. Utilitarianism
    5. Deontology
    TASK TWO
    In my opinion we cant depend on any one ethical theroy completely as with time situation changes and the thought process to solve a situation also changes . Yes we look upon the theories as an example or modle but we need some new additions to solve a problem .

  9. 1)D
    2)U
    3)U
    4)VE
    5)D
    In my opinion, virtue ethics is the best when the theory to know who is the right person and the wrong person it will give us a sense of clarity in knowing the person.he/she can be a deteonologist or utilitarianism if he/she thinks to do good things.

    • Good effort. Virtue ethics do offer humanity a better future but they are not without their drawbacks. Critics argue they lack an action oriented plan. Virtue can also vary from person to person. Thus lack universal parameters to judge ethical decisions.

  10. TASK ONE
    1. Deontological
    2. Utilitarianism
    3. Utilitarianism + Virtue Ethics
    4. Utilitarianism
    5. Deontology

    TASK TWO

    With the dissecting and decoding of the meaning of each ethical theory, we get a glimpse into its internal aspects which are crucial for us to decide on what stand to take while dealing with one situation or other.
    For a utilitarian like Thanks, the deed resulting into greater good instills a hope for better future. For a hopeful being, even if half population survives, the cycle of life has the possibilities to thrive again. But one has to be cautious on weighing all the options available and take this stand when rest all weigh lower on scale.
    If look into deontological apporach of Captain America, with absolute stacks of right and wrong deeds /conduct kept in an almirah of the Duty- Charter, it’s the easiest and most intutive/quick fix solution to number of problems. We fit and check. But its complicated to handle all the situations with these gauntlets of right and wrong, that sometime refuse to fit. Rather when it happens, we may take a holistic perspective to deal with the ethical dilemma.
    Since childhood , we are inoculated with dosage of Virtue Ethics by our parents and society. Superman was no exception. Aiming for the good, with deeds that begin with us, is a very wholesome way to deal with life. But like the kryptonite for him, life throws customised kryptonites before us in compelling situations and it’s on us to reconsider practicing the best virtues Vs trading over life for greater good.
    As we ponder and ponder , to me all the three theories of ethics are interrelated and are good at dealing with one dilemma over other at once. Thus, as the situation suits , we need to make a conscious thought and decide on what brings neglible/minimum damage but maximum good for all. For life is to live and love with honour and respect.

  11. Task 1:
    1.) Virtue Ethics
    2.) Utilitarianism
    3.) Virtue Ethics
    4.) Deontology
    5.) Deontology

    Task 2:

    Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that determines right from wrong by focusing on outcomes. It is a form of consequentialism. Utilitarianism Appears to be a simple theory because it consists of only one evaluative principle : Do what achieves the best consequences.

    Though the approach of utilitarianism is most common in distinguishing between right and wrong it has certain limitations i.e., it gives wrong answers to moral questions moreover, it permits various actions that everyone knows are morally wrong.

    It is also possible to disagree with utilitarianism and still be an utilitarian like,
    Criminal Justice : How Harshly should Criminals be Punished? as they are also human beings they should be punished as leniently as possible by determining new punishments irrespective to traditional ways to punish.

    Pollution : Should people be allowed to pollute the environment, even though it causes harm to others? To what extent? Our Industrialization is based on using techniques that hurt the environment and human health. We need to balance the economic good this creates with the harm it does to ourselves and future generations.

    Thus, In other words, the metric for a good utilitarian action is the degree to which it benefits the community rather than the cost it has to that community.

  12. 1. DEONTOLOGY
    2.UTILITARIANISM
    3.DEONTOLOGY
    4. VIRTUAL ETHICS
    5.DEONTOLOGY
    I totally agree with the theories of all the 3 super heroes but the most ethical theory was put forward by Captain America. As captain said that we don’t trade lives, it clearly emphasizes that life of each individual is important and that no innocent should be killed irrespective of the result. This theory called deontological theory is completely opposite to the utilitarian theory which clearly states that good consequence is equal to good results. Moreover deontological theory is based on the belief that some acts are right and others wrong. So in this way it gives the definition of right and wrong in a more sensible and clearer way. Thus deontology helps the people to understand the basic moral code of conduct.

  13. 1.DEONTOLOGY
    2. UTILITARIANISM
    3. UTILITARIANISM
    4. VIRTUE ETHICS
    5. VIRTUE ETHICS
    I WOULD say, that DEONTOLOGY is better than other ones. As it is helps in flourishing human society, in a ethical way. And also acceptable vastly. DEONTOLOGY is peaceful way compared to other violence acts of others. Even though standing with a strong opponent it will take a proper way and not much destructive.
    Also accepting all this theories, all are best suited for the different situations at different times, which make these stand proper and helpful for all creatures and creations.

  14. Task-1:-
    1-U
    2-V
    3-D
    4-U
    5.VE

    Task-2:-In my opinion virtue ethics is the best ethical theory as it tells that everyone should cultivate good character traits and should try to be a good human being. And when a person will be good he will think both from mind and heart will think for others survival also and when each and every person will be a good human being the world will become a happy and better place to live.

  15. Task 1
    1 : D
    2 : U
    3 : U
    4 : VE
    5 : VE
    Superman and Theory of virtual ethics is more ethical in my sense as it states for cultivation of humanitarian traits so as to develop a moralistic world. But even there are some odd conditions in life which drives us to follow the theories of deontology, Utilariantism, still we can have a perseverance and idealistic approach towards it. In this way we can stop the hazardous consequences to happen.

  16. Task 1.
    1.VE
    2.VE
    3.U
    4.VE
    5.D
    Task2
    In myh views captain America is most ethical in among three becoz in today’s seneriao we cant believe on everyone .there is a need of own values, ethics , N words to be trust on .for example In an organisation if someone is harm the policy of org. Which harm the ethical values of org. n give wrong impact on others then there is need to take action between all ones N make an example if someone doing wrong so he,she should be punished in how .if we can’t ourself then we can’t help others there is need of action on time .we can not make things let it go on time or future .
    But on other hand like
    Thanos , there is no need to become utilitarian becoz this not make sense destroy half of something to use only left one even everyone try to change ownself to save future not to destroy future ,he has power ,stone s but he didn’t use his mind stone to show the bad effect of resources used by them reglessly. We can’t make others life let it go.
    N superman is like a ideal one his thoughts are good on the morale but not. In lives becoz in any how we do mistakes even sometimes there is need of punishment becoz if there no scary feelings in our mind so we become over confidence ,N thinks ourself superior on others with our logics and roles .so there is need of restrictions and change .

    Deotology i agree with this.
    Aa i earlier said there is need of action on time we can not make things let it go or not become so creditial or superior on others life ,there is need of balance between not so good N so offencable.becoz in mean time everthing needs change we cannot judge on only right or only wrong bases.

  17. TASK1:
    1. Deontology
    2.Utilitarian
    3.Utilitarian
    4.Deontology
    5.Virtual Ethics
    TASK:2
    Captain America , Thanos, and Superman are the most powerful characters who could make their own stands in spectators. And among this, Thanos is most ethical since it is a fact that greatest good for greatest number. Even though, there will be a series of hazardous and heart wrecking incidents to encounter, its end will be permanent , everlasting, and more in number. In infinity war, he is sacrificing his daughter too. So, as a living being, there will be definitely certain emotional weaknesses regarding relationships. Nevertheless without concerning self content or without being egoistically ethical, he is doing everything for the external. And in today’s world there is a huge reduction in certain humane values and principles. So, I prefer utilitarianism is the suitable ethical theory.

  18. 1.
    D
    U
    VE
    D
    VE

    2. All three can be equally ethical or equally unethical, considering the particular situations provided. They tried to do whatever they felt is most ethical.
    When we say of Captain America & Deontology, undoubtedly duty should always be priority. When we enter a system, we oath to a certain set of rules and regulations which are to be abide by.
    Guidance from those protocols must be given inclination. Even the judiciary of India supports, ‘No innocent to be hanged’.
    When it comes to Utilitarianism, what Thanos thought of, killing half to save half is somewhat unethical. Instead of killing, we can reside onto some other solution. We have limited sources is agreed, make sustainable use out of it by ensuring equity.

  19. 1. D. (Means i.e. violence is not justified. )
    2. U
    3. U
    4. VE
    5. VE
    Being ethical means able to distinguish between right and wrong and then doing the right thing in a given situation. Cap. America following the deontological approach i.e. going by the rules regardless of their consequences is pratially right. While not trading lives is no doubt is intrinsically good but practically is not providing solution to the given problem. Showing so much focussing on means not giving satisfactorily result. Thanos ‘ idea of utilitarianism being focus entirely on consequence , to build resourceful future by eleminating half of its consumers . It can look as a workable solution for short run without actually identifying the root cause of how and why the resources get short for human consumption in the first place .it negects the means in achieving result which can result in same problem again or can create some new ones too. Being virtuous is doing good what ‘s in our hand . It involves taking calculative risks . It is the balance of utilitarianism and deontologism. It gives equal importance to means and consequences. Mahatma gandhi’s stance of ‘do and die ‘after quit india movement is also like that. Along With his principles of non violence and disobedience, till 1946 he has taught the persons to choose violence over cowardice. In my point of view , every theory has its own pros and cons but being virtuous is the most ethical qmong them.

  20. TASK 1
    1. deontology
    2. utilitarianism
    3.utilitarianism
    4.utilitarianism
    5. virtue ethics

    As the three different philosophies have it’s own way of understanding things i.e Denotology is more of moral Stan , Utilitarian is an result oriented for greater good of masses and Virtue ethics is of inner character building. It has to be a synthesis of all the three philosophies being Denotology ,Utilitarian and Virtue ethics. The action of captain America was of moral stand., Thanos felt world needed alteration, Virtue of Superman to be present in every man.

  21. Task 1
    1. Virtual ethics
    2. Utilitariansm
    3. Deontology
    4. Deontology
    5. Virtual Ethics
    Task 2
    Deontology is an ethical theory that uses rule to distinguish right from wrong.
    According to my analysis I found Caption America is more ethical because he is pretty much an all-around good guy. He is honest, up-front, loyal, extremely noble, and unfailingly dependable. His strengths don’t lie in creativity or brilliance, especially when compared to some other Avengers, but he is the one who can step in and lead all the complex personalities, skill sets, strengths, and weaknesses of this diverse team. Ultimately, he is the one to take on the role of the mission leader of the Avengers.

  22. 1)Deontology
    2)Utilitarianism
    3)Utilitarianism
    4)Virtue Ethics
    5)Deontology

    Out of all the three,I would like to go with Virtue Ethics because Deontology and Utilitarianism both provides us with an extreme approach while Virtue ethics enable us to cultivate good character traits and hence helps us to take a balanced approach towards situations.For example,stealing is morally wrong but may be someone has stolen something out of hunger which is although a basic right but they are not getting and hence according to Deontology they will treat them with the given conduct without considering the situation of the person while virtue ethics will allow us to consider the situation sensitively and hence punish the person accordingly but also improve supply of food so that things could be done better.

  23. Task 1 :
    1. Virtue ethics
    2. Utilitarianism
    3. Utilitarianism
    4. Deontology
    5. Virtue ethics

    Task 2 :
    Ethics is not a straight yes or no answer but a solution that is required best at the moment, considering future consequences. No single ethical theory can be applied everywhere in life. The combination and understanding of all theories and their use accordingly is needed through life.
    But still Deontology is a better choice/option. Be it an civil servant or just a normal citizen of a country, duty for nation always comes first. Virtue ethics and utilitarianism often create dilemma but are still required at certain critical situations like partition of India. Deontology guides to the path of honesty, integrity and several other qualities that are expected in a Civil Servant.
    Apart from that it binds you to moral duty of the job, which no other form does. Also deontology can make you worthy to posses the powers of God, Thor (hammer lifting ,superhero reference).

  24. 1) Deontology
    2) Utilitarianism
    3) Utilitarianism
    4) Virtue Ethics
    5) Virtue Ethics.

    Ethical theories give us perspective or ways to look at a dilemma and decide what is the best possible decision to be made.
    All the 3 methods lead you to a path which according to the reasons it presents seem right at the time. But all the three can not be put in practise all together.
    Deontology considers acts are intrinsically
    Wrong or Right . So it chooses to do the right things irrespective of the concequences. Which may seem to be right by theory but may bear results that may not be worth doing the right thing. Here comes Utilitarianism which pleases doing the greater good for the greater number and sideline the means to the ends. Which may not always be wrong as the same as it can not always he justified.
    Virtue Ethics teaches to posses good character traits( like compassion ,courage,self control, wisdom,etc) to be a good human .
    So they all are right in there respective ways . To choose one to be the ultimate decision is naive. The person in charge of the decision making should consider all three and make the decision according to his conviction as per the demand of the situation.

  25. TASK 1
    1. deontology
    2. utilitarianism
    3.utilitarianism
    4.utilitarianism
    5. virtue ethics

    TASK 2
    I have not seen any part of the AVENGERS so i can not choose the best character and in case i have to choose one best ethics theory i would like to choose VIRTUE ETHICS bcoz it shows honesty ,self control ,and integrity.

  26. 1- VE
    2- U
    3- U
    4- D
    5- D
    With my Limited Analysis I find Capt.America to be most ethical.
    Reasoning:
    Deontology guides us with specific set rules as moral code of conduct to resolve an issue.It lays emphasis on “every life is precious”( when capt.America said we don’t trade lives he also threw light that every life is precious and we can’t trade one).

    Although,I choose Deontology over Virtual Ethics and Utilitarianism I also believe Virtual Ethics and Utilitarianism comes with their own simplicity and complexities in different situations.
    Any individual for that matter doesn’t always stick to the same principles and ideologies .A good human always Practices virtue for moral excellence and applies it to perform his duty following the set of rules to bring larger good for the masses or society.Thus we need to have a balanced approach to any given situation and apply a blend of these theories.
    Thankyou!

  27. 1- VE
    2- U
    3- U
    4- D
    5- D
    With my Limited Analysis I find Capt.America to be most ethical.
    Reasoning:
    Deontology guides us with specific set rules as moral code of conduct to resolve an issue.It lays emphasis on “every life is precious”( when capt.America said we don’t trade lives he also threw light on the fact that every life is precious and we can’t trade one).

    Although,I choose Deontology over Virtual Ethics and Utilitarianism I also believe Virtual Ethics and Utilitarianism comes with their own simplicity and complexities in different situations.
    Any individual for that matter doesn’t always stick to the same principles and ideologies .A good human always Practices virtue for moral excellence and applies it to perform his duty following the set of rules to bring larger good for the masses or society.Thus we need to have a balanced approach to any given situation and apply a blend of these theories.
    Thankyou!

  28. TASK 1
    1. Virtual Ethics (Wisdom of Gandhiji)
    2. Utilitarianism (Means to peace out the communal stir)
    3. Utilitarianism (Freedom of country later in an exchange of soldiers now)
    4. Deontology (Providing health welfare is the basic duty of govt)
    5. Virtual Ethics (Wisdom, Courage, and Compassion exhibited)

    TASK 2
    All three can be considered as equally ethical or equally unethical, pertaining to the peculiarity of the situation at hand.
    I would rather place them in a ladder system, eradicating the need to choose just one and employing an embedded system that helps in making a choice that uses all three, in a logical manner.
    Virtual ethics would be considered first so as to employ wisdom, necessary to make an informed judgment, and virtues like courage and compassion to be employed as backing in the further decision-making process.
    Deontology would come next followed by Utilitarianism.

    This embedded ladder system will be much more efficient, beneficial, and less debatable as all three are employed depending on the varying degrees their use can be put to in making an informed choice. This makes all of them important and useful at the same time, giving a result which will be much more pragmatic in nature (much like real life), giving the best results dilemma-free and hence guilt-free.

    • Very good effort. But doesn’t keeping them in a ladder system also show a preferential system. Virtue first then others? Better would have been including situational dimension in your answer.

  29. 1/D
    2/V
    3/U
    4/VE

    Among the 3 superheroes .Captain America, superman, Thanos presented different opinions based on their different situations and obstacles they faced and handled
    Deontology refers to “duty based system of ethics.In between the three superheroes I believe that Captain America beliefs in Deontology because the way he handles the situation and serve with team work, selfless service and sacrifices for others (innocents)
    According to me every situation has some advantages and disadvantages
    So, its depends upon situations how he/she overcomes from it .

  30. Task 1
    1.Virtue ethics
    2.UTILITARIANISM
    3.Deontology
    4.Deontology
    5.Virtue Ethics

    Task 2

    Capt.America always follow his duites and by following his duites alone makes one right.
    Thanos follow Utilitarianism which emphasis on maximum goodness for maximum no. of people then means does not matter.
    He is willing to scarifies his own daugter for his maximum goodness.
    Superman has excellent charater strait such as self control,wisdom,courage and compassion.
    Virtue Ethics as the most ethical as it excellence of moral charater with intergrity will lead to long lasting happiness.

  31. 1. Deontology
    2. Utilitarian
    3. Virtual Ethics
    4. Deontology
    5. Virtual Ethics

    In utilitarianism someone has to lose his/her life to save other lives. In Deontology some lives are saved at the cost of others. In virtual Ethics, one only try to do good which is required at the moment which does not deliberately put someone’s life into jeopardy. Which is why Virtual Ethics is bett

  32. 1. Deontology
    2. Utilitarianism
    3. Virtue ethics
    4. Utilitarianism
    5. Virtue ethics.

    Among these three heroes, I’ll choose thanos over remaining two. I.e. utilitarianism.
    The reason to choose it is that Thanos was not in race to be good of morally correct. What he did , he did to save the resources of our universe so that our species survive for a longer period.
    The bigger the reward the bigger the dream the harder the grind is an old saying.
    If our decision on a particular thing is affected few people negatively but on the other hand it will be helpful to a larger part of society, then we have to do it. For example in this covid crisis many people criticised the government on lockdown the reason is that many people had lost their jobs and thier means of earning. Some had gone in a big amount of debt. But on the other hand this decision had saved us from a worse situation like higher casualties, high no. Of positive patients. In a developing country like India where a lot of work still need to be done we cannot afford to save economy on the cost of lives.

    Sometimes we need to pay small prices to save us from paying bigger price.

  33. Task 1
    1. D
    2. U
    3. U
    4. D
    5. VE

    Task 2
    Ethics are a set of codes or principles which guide human conduct. As said theory of ethics consists of D, U, and VE. All of them have their own consequences, they have their own drawbacks and advantages just like the two sides of a coin, but as ethics are a set of rules which provide a framework for individuals, groups, and society at large for making right decisions when faced with a set of choices. Here also as we are faced with a set of choices we need to choose a one and make the right decision. So out of all I consider utilitarianism a right choice from the set of choices as here pain is avoided and pleasure is seeked. You choose the action that would produce the most overall happiness for the group even though it produced less happiness for you. For example
    mother buys new clothes for his/her children even when her clothes are torned or even when she has a desire to buy new clothes. She sleeps in the wet bed(when child does pee on the bed) and makes her child sleep in the dry bed even after knowing the consequences about her getting uncomfortable by sleeping on wet bed. Now as a civil servant if need to take a decision for the people you need to take it even if doesn’t favour the lavish lifestyle of rich people and in that case the rich people may act to defame you, but that’s called rule utilitarianism. In this current pandemic, frontline warriors didn’t bother about there pain and hardships but instead they showed the actions which are measured in terms of happiness. Doctors,nurses, paramedical staff didn’t bother about the family but decided to curb this pandemic risking there lives. Many even till their last breath served the patients. We live in a world where sometimes people do terrible things and if you we’re the one who happen to be there and we can do something to make things better, we must, even if that means getting our hands dirty. In India during the pandemic we saw violence against doctors, (people doing horrible things beating threatening doctors) but even doctors happened to be there in hospital treating patients to do things better to curb this pandemic situation if they were beaten. Concluding we must ought to live by rules in general which are likely to lead to the greatest good for the greatest number.

    • Good effort. But Your example of Doctors working during the pandemic even at personal costs falls more towards deontology. Same is with the example of a mother doing her duty towards her child.
      Also try to present a balanced approach including all theories and their shortcomings.

  34. TASK-1
    1) Deontlogy
    2)Utilitarianism
    3)Utilitarianism
    4)Virtue Ethics
    5)Virtue Ethics

    TASK-2
    According to me all these are good at there corresponding solutions or scenarios where they are choosable for. But there are certain stages where only an option among these makes as a good solution for the situation. Another scenario is that all these options can be enacted as a mixed form inorder to be the perfect solution to the problem. Hence, I think all the superheroes are good at a particular issue so that none can solve them rather than others. So, these are all situational based and the outcomes may change in accordance with the situations.

    • Task 1
      1. Virtual ethics
      2. Utilitariansm
      3. Deontology
      4. Deontology
      5. Virtual Ethics
      Task 2
      Deontology is an ethical theory that uses rule to distinguish right from wrong.
      According to my analysis I found Caption America is more ethical because he is pretty much an all-around good guy. He is honest, up-front, loyal, extremely noble, and unfailingly dependable. His strengths don’t lie in creativity or brilliance, especially when compared to some other Avengers, but he is the one who can step in and lead all the complex personalities, skill sets, strengths, and weaknesses of this diverse team. Ultimately, he is the one to take on the role of the mission leader of the Avengers.

  35. 1.D
    2. U
    3. VE
    4. U
    5. D
    When choosing an ethical action, the context must be clear. When it comes to the matter of governance, while forming policies deontology is the best selection. This is because it incorporates everyone’s decisions and debates are made, ultimately leading to selection of the rules required for all. Example: Our constitution. Whereas when laws and rules are made to be implemented, the best way out is rule utilitarianism.

  36. TASK-1:
    1.Virtue Ethics
    2.Utilitarianism
    3.Utilitarianism
    4.Virtue Ethics
    5.Deontological
    TASK-2
    Ethical theory is a theory that advocates ethical code of conduct i.e; it provides justifiable and reliable principles to determine what is moral and immoral behaviour.
    Deontology is an ethical theory according to which, an action is right if it is in accordance with a moral rule or principle i.e;means justifies the ends.A moral rule or principle is the one that is rational.
    According to the ethical theory of Utilitarianism, an action is right if it promotes the best consequences i.e;ends justifies the means. The best consequences are those in which happiness is maximized.
    Virtue ethics says that an action is right if it is what a virtuous person would do in the circumstances. A virtuous person is the one who has virtues and exercises it. It’s a character trait that is needed for humans to flourish well (Eudaimonia)
    Virtue ethics shifts the emphasis from fixed formula of two extremes i.e; deontological and utilitarianism towards ethics of human character.For instance, a utilitarian would argue that giving to a charity maximizes social well-being and a deontologist would argue that we have a duty to help others. A Virtue Ethicist would point out to the fact that these situations displays desirable virtues such as being charitable and benevolent.So,virtue ethics is a broad term which encompasses the outcomes of deontology and utilitarianism and gives these two extremes its required purpose or aim.Thus, we can say that virtue ethics are the ultimate goal for which utilitarianism and deontology are the different paths.

  37. 1- Deontology
    2- Utilitarianism
    3- Utilitarianism
    4- Deontology
    5- Virtue Ethics
    Three super heros ethical views are good in their point of view.no one is right and no one is wrong.very difficult to taking decision in their situation.it’s based our characters.
    1.Utilitarianism:-
    Utilitarianism may be classical Utilitarianism which advocates for the greatest good for the greatest number of people.
    2.Deontology:-
    Deontology is correct but cause some consequences. In Utilitarianism greatest good for greatest number. End is good but at the starting stage we loss something or someone.
    3.Virtue Ethics:-
    Virtue Ethics is basically a good character traits in personal life and professional life also.
    Virtue Ethics is perfect to take decision. They follow set of rules and regulations. In the best friends case,the friend stands for honesty rather than supporting his friend. Virtue is not easy to follow. It’s come from our youngest age.

  38. 1.
    VE
    U
    U
    D
    VE

    2.
    Deontology is a duty-based system of ethics which holds that some acts are intrinsically right or wrong regardless of their consequences. Utilitarianism simply stated believes in greatest good for the greatest number. Virtue Ethics is the excellence of moral and intellectual character and to the well-being brought about by such integrity.

    Virtue Ethics is considered as the most ethical as it emphasizes the cultivation of good character, wisdom, compassion, self control and courage in oneself and others. As compared to Utilitarianism, which is consequential whereas the Virtue ethics is non-consequential . It focuses on the personal and moral growth of the person which in turn reflects in the ethical decision making as well. The Great Leader Mahatma Gandhi followed this principle as he followed truth, peace, compassion and nonviolence in the struggle of Indian independence. The philosopher of the virtue ethics, The Aristotle described that Integrity brings moral and intellectual character for the well being of the society.
    A person without virtue ethics is easily influenced by others as their personal and moral integrity wouldn’t have been built strong.
    Thus, the Virtue Ethics plays a vital role in making the decision of ethical dilemmas and helps one to most ethical.

  39. Task-1
    1. D ( Deontology )
    2. U (Utilitarianism)
    3. U ( Utilitarianism)
    4. V E ( Virtue Ethics)
    5. V E (Virtue Ethics )

    Task-2
    Considering for the betterment of this society from beginning of civilization , all the above mentioned ethical theories are important which will give their impact differently in different dilemmas. But , here the ethical theory which fascinated me most that is the ‘Virtue Ethics’ ,the ethics which well matched with superman’s characters . Superheroes will not be always righteous and idle but as the whole , not only good but important characters are emphasized by this Virtue Ethics i.e wisdom , self-control,courage , compassion and so on… which will always push someone not to do unwell act towards any even while treating with animals. These good characters as I am thinking will play immensely an important role to strongly build the virtue of humane in humans without forcing any deed of duty and unwanted responsibility. This built the character of kindness, humanity, ability to stand with right even in against a beloved one ….etc.

  40. According to me situation is the better answer for being eithical. Everything depends on situation of an individual in which they survive. All three of them have there pros and cons. simultaneously.

  41. TASK 1

    1.Virtual Ethics
    2.Utilitarianism
    3.Utilitarianism
    4.Virtual Ethics
    5.Deontology

    TASK 2

    Deontology refers to the theory of “duty based system of ethics” regardless of the consequence.
    Utilitarianism is the theory of “Greater good for the greater number.
    virtual Ethics refers to the cultivation of positive character traits to be a good person that has good moral and intellectual character and the well being brought about by such integrity.
    All of these ethical theories aim for goodness. though in most situations the best theory of all would be virtual ethics because it strikes a balance between deontology focussing on duty despite possibilities of bad consequence i.e. only good means irrespective of bad ends and ulitilariansim focussing on bad means if that is for the good end for the greater number.unlike these two theories virtual ethics focusses on both good means and good end.
    so virtual ethics is the best of the three ethical theories.

  42. 1. D
    2. U
    3. D
    4. VE
    5. VE
    The three superheroes: Captain America, Thanos, Superman presented different opinions based on their intrinsic moral codes.
    Captain America, being a deontologist, opined against sacrificing even one innocent life to save many others. The same moral code is reflected in one of the basic principles of the criminal justice system that 1000 culprits can escape, but, one innocent should not be punished. But a deontological stand is not always correct as many times it acts as a kind of “gap in the shield” from where the opponent may find an opportunity to strike.
    Thanos believed in utilitarianism and thus focused on the end and not means to achieve the greater good. For him, annihilation of half of the living population was a small price to pay for the continuation of life. But here utilitarianism doesn’t justify the wrong done against the other half that had to pay the price.
    Superman emphasized on virtue ethics which focuses on cultivation of good character. A person with a good character is like a boon for himself and the society. But nobody is perfect and giving too much focus on excelling at virtue ethics may deviate one from the realities of everyday life.
    Thus deontology, utilitarianism and virtue ethics are all right and wrong depending on the circumstances.

  43. 1.U
    2.U
    3.U
    4.VE
    5.VE

    Utilitarianism,Deontology,Virtue ethics all three are ethical theories has their specific significance in the real lives of the people of the society.According to me,Superman is the most ethical among them and Virtue ethics is the most ethical among the three theories as it states that character is the key element of the ethical thinking.Cultivation of good characters among the people shapes their mind and inspire them to think and act ethically.It also helps to solve the complex puzzles of ethical dilemmas.It makes us to understand what it means to be virtuous human being.It allows people to maintain personal and interpersonal connections important for a good life.

  44. 1: Denotology
    2: Utilitarian
    3: Utilitarian
    4: Utilitarian
    5: Virtue ethics

    As the three different philosophies have it’s own way of understanding things i.e Denotology is more of moral Stan , Utilitarian is an result oriented for greater good of masses and Virtue ethics is of inner character building. It has to be a synthesis of all the three philosophies being Denotology ,Utilitarian and Virtue ethics. The action of captain America was of moral stand., Thanos felt world needed alteration, Virtue of Superman to be present in every man.
    Virtue ethics is of more ethical comparably. Virtue ethics has both the Denotology and Utilitarianism in it which takes the stand on which is more ethical depending on the situation.

  45. 1) a) U
    b) U
    c) VE
    d) VE
    e) D

    2) I believe each of the ethical theory has its own importance. One action could be right based on one theory but wrong according to the other. For e.g. US bombing Japan during WWII can be supported by Utilitarian theory but deontological and virtue based theory would conclude it to be wrong. Therefore, we should judge each action from each theory and then decide which theory should be given what weightage in a given situation.

  46. D
    U
    U
    U
    VE
    Utilitarianism means greatest good for the greatest number. Deontology is a duty-based system of ethics which holds that some acts are intrinsically right or wrong regardless of their consequences and that moral agents have duties to follow moral commands or rules regardless of their consequences. Virtue ethics emphasize the cultivation of good character traits that enable one to be a good person- wisdom, courage, self-control, and compassion are some examples of such traits.
    Although all ethical theories have their own advantages, I choose Virtue Ethics. As virtue ethics inculcates good characteristics in an individual, thus enabling one to be a good person. If everyone on this planet earth have these good characteristic traits, there won’t be any dilemma of choosing right or wrong and the world will be heavenly. But, we know such an ideal case is not possible. And I believe to counter the negative forces, Virtue ethics theory is all that is needed. This theory also provides opportunity to the evil ones to come in the right path.
    If majority of the people follows this theory, it will lead to welfare for all the living things and our environment, thus making the world a better place to live in.

  47. 1 VE
    2 U
    3 VE
    4 D
    5 VE
    We have to understood that no one theory is perfect or 100% ethical all theories are right and wrong varies on situation to situation and person to person.
    We just have to see that will theory is highly applicable with satisfying the safety of maximum stakeholders and and providing benefits to maximum stakeholders.

  48. TASK – 1 :
    1. Gandhiji suspended non-cooperation movement at its peak due to violence at Chauri Chaura. – Deontology
    2. Indian freedom movement leaders accepted partition of the country after they were unable to calm down the communal riots in the country. – Utilitarianism
    3. Gandhiji extended support to British govt. against Germany in World War II – Virtue Ethics
    4. Govt. making medical equipment tax free during an epidemic. – Deontology
    5. Your best friend makes a sexist remark as a joke to a lady. You testify against your friend when the lady complaints. – Virtue Ethics

    TASK -2 :
    It might seem that always following the morale code of conduct would give the best result. But always following that might not produce the best outcome for the greatest number of people. This is why we need Utilitarianism. It focuses on the consequences that benefit the maximum people and that is the ultimate goal to solve any dilemma. One must argue that overlooking the rules and taking actions cannot be considered ethical. This is where Rule Utilitarianism comes into picture. This version of the theory says that we ought to live by the rules, that in general, are likely to lead to the greatest good for the greatest number. This is the theory that creates the middle ground as it does not encourage going against the rules to obtain the results. Thanos got the results but his actions were against the rules and ethics and that is what makes him wrong. Rule Utilitarianism is thus one of the most optimal theories to follow in such ethical dilemmas.

  49. Task 1:
    1.Deontology
    2.Utilitarianism
    3.Utilitarianism
    4.Virtue ethics
    5.Virtue ethics
    Task 2:
    I agree with the theory of virtual ethics. According to the theory of virtual ethics, a virtuous life is the most fulfilling(human flourishing) and the happiest one. The end of a human action should bring happiness and for this the action must be a reasoned one. Inorder to decide if our action is reasoned it requires us to have good character traits(ex: compassion) which help us while deciding. Virtue ethics has a good potential to avoid horrors as a consequence, which might have happened otherwise when the same situation is dealt in urgency with help of other theories since it stands on the basic human values which abide by the dictates of rationality.

  50. 1. Deontology
    2. Utilitarianism
    3. Virtual ethics and Utilitarianism
    4. Utilitarianism
    5. Virtual ethics
    in my opinion virtue ethics is the best ethical theory as it tells that everyone should cultivate good character traits and should try to be a good human being.

    • D/VE
      D/VE
      U
      U
      VE

      In ethics the main focus is given to end result for the people benefits

      In saw 3types of superhero
      For captain America, Saving the life of one person is very imp
      He said that, if we need to killed one innocent person in order to save life of millions of ppl than it’s wrong
      But it’s also sound stupid at same time bec to save life of one person we are destroying the life of millions one

      For Thanos, if we need to kill thousands of ppl to save life of millions than it’s very good deal
      But it’s ethically wrong

      For superman
      One first need to develop Quality of wisdom, compassion so that he understands the situation and take the decision according to best possible way

      So i think superman is better option

  51. 1)U,D
    2)U
    3)D
    4)D
    5)VE

    Ethics are personal judgements of deciding what is right and what is wrong. In superheroes I believe Captain America is most ethical because his belief in deontology. As said it is always important to give importance to each one rather than trading few for many. It is because an innocent sacrificed means a humanity which is scarce is lost. Indian judicial system is also based on ideology of deontology where even if 5 convicts are left but an innocent should not be punished. It puts forward th notion of humanity above all and this very necessary for peacefulness and tranquillity of this world.

  52. 1. VE
    2. U
    3. D
    4. VE
    5. VE

    Task 2:-
    There is a great saying “A hero is an ordinary person in an extraordinary situation “. Its how one act in an extraordinary situation, defines him/ her as a hero. The response depends on the tools available to the individual. An individual equipped with sense of self control (which inculcates discipline), courage (which aids in decision making) and wisdom (which enables comprehensive overview of s situation) is definitely bound to act and react in a befitting manner for a situation. It is such virtues which are precursor to a better and informed decision making. Hence, Virtue Ethics theory fits most if not all of the dilemma one can face under a pressing situation.

    Virtue Ethics enables decision making even in the absence of laid down rules and hence equips an individual to deal with surprising and unexpected situations effectively, efficiently and comprehensively.

    There may be instances wherein practice of Virtue Ethics may delay the favourable outcomes. However, it’s practice triggers larger societal reform and cohesion. During freedom struggle too Mahatma Gandhi displayed Virtue Ethics by recalling non cooperation movement after the chauri chura incident. Although, the envisaged result of the movement was delayed but the larger massage of non violence was sent out clear which had enormous societal and psychological impact on further freedom struggle.

    Taking cognisance of the above, it is apt to assert that Virtue Ethics theory encompasses all important facets of human peaceful and progressive social existence.

  53. 1) D
    2) U
    3) U
    4) D
    5) VE

    In my opinion all the ethical theories are important but Virtue Ethics is the most necessary one as it makes us a good person and at the same time makes the world better place to live in.

  54. 1 VE
    2 U
    3 VE
    4 D
    5 VE

    Virtue ethics is in our subconscious mind, but we are trained to ignore this in the current society due to 7 sins – greed, gluttony, lust, anger, laziness, envy and pride. In order to follow Virtue Ethics, one constantly need to be mindful of what choices do a person has and which one is most righteous. Young superman used to save people jeopardizing his own even after his dad asked him not to show his superpower in public. Virtue ethics is beyond duty (deontology), it is more about having constant check on what is right and wrong according to the situation, rather than following a set of rules given to them as duty. Duties can make one do anything even if they feel this is isn’t right but virtue ethics will make a person go beyond his duties or consequences and do the righteous act which also tends to set example for others. Thanos, in order to bring development to 50% of the population, not only took away 50% of the population but also gave never ending pain to the rest of 50% population and even himself. If we keep looking at the probability of consequences, most people would accept forfeit even before trying. We are humans and the greatest superpower we have is our gut feeling, our subconscious.

    Some more point to back up favouring Superman theory –
    Superman, being a Kryptonian, learned ethical traits through his human mom and dad. He cultivated these traits through time and experience. As quoted by Lincoln, “Nearly all men can face adversity, but if you want to check one’s morality, give him powers”. In DC’s universe’ superman is the most powerful being on Earth and yet he controls his power all the time and keeps giving Lex Luther, his arch enemy a chance even after he fails him innumerable times. When Batman questioned members of Justice League for their endless powers and planned contingency plans to neutralize their powers in case if they ever went out of control, it was Superman who himself handed over Kryptonite(which could be fatal to Superman) to Batman to safe the Earth.

  55. TASK-1 :
    1.D,VE
    2.U
    3.D,VE
    4.D,VE
    5.D,VE
    TASK-2 :
    However,
    Captain America (DEONTOLOGY) ,Thanos(UTILITARIANISM),Superman(VIRTUE OF ETHICS) are right in their own perspectives.
    I will prioritise DEONTOLOGY firstly,because not doing wrong things is better than doing good things.
    then VIRTUE OF ETHICS secondly,because doing good things is better than doing bad things,
    after that i will go with UTILITARIANISM,because when there is violence needed, i will go with little violence good than more violence..it all depends on the situation.
    But if you ask me which is really moral in between theese three, then i will go with DEONTOLOGY.

    thank you sir .

  56. 1) D
    2) U
    3) U
    4) U
    5) VE

    FROM THE TIMES OF A PREMITIVE MAN, THE HUMANBEING HASBEEN ADOPTING HIMSELF ACCORDING TO THE SITUATIONS THAT SURROUND HIM. So a single theory or a line has never been the slogan. If it’s been he would have been dead by now. So for the modern man which is a social animal it needs some morals and ethics through which it’s behaviour could be termed as human and then humane.
    So as a child I should be taught good moral values such as compassion,kindness,honesty,integrity,courage etc,..( VIRTUE ETHICS) so that I grow up as a Sensible humanbeing who would like to live with fellow humans harmoniously.
    Then as a young man I may face situations in my life where I could be tempted or influenced to do a few things which could essentially go against the values that I learnt as a child and then do create unjust or harmful situations and some times may create a fine environment also but I wouldn’t be matured enough to decide so here I must be taught to not compromise my moral values and my actions should be in strict accordance with my moral and ethical standards irrespective of the consequences it does produce (DEONTOLOGY).
    When I get matured into middle and old age , I gather enough experience and wisdom in my life and here I do learn myself that irrespective of what my moral values and ethics are the greater goodness of the society importance not any fancy things that I believe or disbelieve.. what a theory or an idea or a moral conduct has a value unless it is helpful for the greater good or well-being of the society at large (UTILITARIANISM) here my journey would be from act utilitarianism to rule utilitarianism.

  57. 1. Gandhiji suspended non- coperation- due to the violence that was during chauri chura. This can be categorised as Virtual Ethics- which is of non-violence.
    2.Why Indian Leaders accepted partition- This type of decision making comes under utilitarianism. Why? This has been because the greater good was taken into consideration over greater numbers.
    3.Gandhiji extending support to britishers in world war- This decision making can be treated as denotology – The virtue of duty and protocol. Also utilitarianism because this can lead to larger violence.
    4. Govt. Making medical equipment tax free- This can be treated as utilitarian, because this has be greater good over greater numbers.
    5. Making sexist comments is not a right thing, the taking of decision based on value system based on respect towards the other can be treated as virtue ethics decision making.
    2. ACTIVITY:
    None of the theory can be treated as an idealistic as different theory can be used in different situations. The best of the characteristics can be used in different situations.
    – Although, the virtue ethics helps us in making value based decision making. At the same time choosing the best options among the available options.
    – The virtue ethics can be used to reduce casualties of wrong decision.
    Eg: While choosing between war and peace. Prior attempts can be made to the possibilities of war.

    When and why Utilitarian is the decision choice and ideal one to be made:
    This is when the conflict between right or wrong is inevitable the attempts as a true leader should be to reduce the possibility of damage.
    Eg: during already waged war- the army and the strategist attempt to reduce the casualties.

    When is Deontology an ideal decision making mechanism: When the duty is prior to personal agenda and choices. Here there is greater sense of duty and responsibility while decision making comes in play.
    Eg. People from the army thinks their sense of duty over their life while decision making.

    • Task1:
      1.)D
      2.)U
      3.)U
      4.)U
      5.)VE

      Task2:
      According to me all the (D,U,VE) are ethical at some particular time.Because each of them have their own uniqueness.
      If all the things are used/applied in a proper way ,then the outcome would be better.Out of them, I think Deontology is more ethical.Captain America followed Deontology and saved many people’s
      Lives.Deontology is a duty-based system of ethics which doesn’t care whether it’s right or wrong (regardless of their consequences).He is so sefless and said no innocent should be sacrificed.At the end he even left his life to save others.so in my view Deontology is better ethical one .

  58. 1. D
    2. U
    3. U
    4. VE/ D
    5. VE
    :- All these theories are good or bad according to their own perspective and situation. The theories which best suited me is Deontology because even the many people should be punished to their crimes but any single innocent person shouldn’t be punished without any crimes.

  59. 1. Deontology
    2. Utilitarianism
    3. Utilitarianism
    4. Utilitarianism
    5. Virtue Ethics

    I think Superman is the most ethical among the three as he follows virtue ethics which is most important for a human being to become humane. The attributes of love, compassion, wisdom, courage and self-control is reflected through this trait which a human being stands for.
    I agree most with the theory of virtue ethics because these are the traits of a human being which contributes the most to the society by helping, showing love, compassion, emotions, wisdom, intellectual, self-control etc.

  60. 1. U – Utilitarianism
    2. U – Utilitarianism
    3. D- Deontology
    4. VE – Virtue Ethics
    5. D- Deontology and VE – Virtue Ethics
    As per my view I feel Superman is the most ethical. Superman was selfless he helped everyone without any expectations for himself which is a required quality of human being and on the other side Utilitarianism and Deontology are also has its own importance depending upon the situations. So , one has to act depending upon the circumstances as per their responsibility.

  61. Task 1
    1. U
    2. D
    3. D
    4. VE
    5. D

    Task 2
    I Believe in Thanos because he believe that only way to save the universe is to thin out the life in it. To eliminate conflict for resources that would otherwise it leads to death and suffering.

    In my opinion – Utilitarianism, from my point of view it says that an action is right if it results in the happiness of the greatest number of people in a society or a group.

  62. Task 1

    1) Virtual Ethics
    2) Utilitarianism
    3) Utilitarianism
    4) Deontology
    5) Virtue Ethics

    Task 2

    – Deontology is a duty based system of ethics which holds that some acts are intrinsically right or wrong regardless of their consequences.
    – Utilitarianism simply believes in greatest good for the greatest number.
    – Virtual Ethics emphazises the cultivation of good character traits that enable one into a good person.
    Like river, it is not always the same, every situations in life will be different and we must act accordingly. All three of them are equally important and relevant. There comes a time when aunty is the prior, sometimes our decisions will accordingly on the behalf of greatest number or for emphasising the cultivation of good character.
    All these Ethical Theory comes to flourish when we decide which one is more useful in that particular scenario. It is all up to us, first we have to understand the situation very well to reach an appropriate solution. Histories are taught to learn from the past and undo or redo it in a different way , so that it is beneficial for the society.

  63. 1-D
    2-u
    3-u
    4-u
    5-VE

    Deontology is the most ethical theory then utilitarianism and virtue ethics, which simply refers to the duty based system, moral ways should be followed regardless of consequences.

    Deontology supported by faith and believe in moral action is kind of more optimistic approach towards ethical dilemma. Because it focuses on present moral excellence which must be ethical.
    If going for the greatest good for greatest numbers or utilitarianism by suppressing moral exchange and taking another collection, cannot be considered ethical.
    Discussing about virtue ethics, which is the cultivation of good character traits, enabling one to be a good person.
    Which almost like dentalogy both are based on integrity.
    These good traits work as a tool to prevent an unethical and Immoral action at any stage of a dilemma,but it focuses on consequences as well along with not following unethical actions for greatest good.

  64. 1.D
    2.U
    3.U
    4.VE
    5.D
    Deontologist give more importance to the morality of an action should be based on whether that action itself is right or wrong under a series of rules, rather than based on the consequences of the action. Here the person is following his duty without thinking about the consequences.
    Utilitarian believes in greatest good for the greatest number. Here the person give more importance for consequences.
    Virtue Ethics is primarily concerned with traits of character that are essential to human flourishing like wisdom, courage, self control & compassion.
    All these 3 types of ethics are good on their own perspective. But in my view Virtue ethics (Superman) is best compared to other two. Because he give importance for morals and for other’s emotions equally. He think more logically by considering human values.

  65. 1. utilitarianism
    2. utilitarianism
    3. deontology
    4. deontology
    5. virtue ethics
    according to me utilitarianism is most ethical theory among others because ultimate aim to be happy at the end and this theory recognises greater happiness of greater number.

  66. # TASK 1
    1. Virtue Ethics of Non-violence.
    2. Utilitarianism for stability.
    3. Virtue Ethics of Helping in need.
    4. Deontology to save people.
    5. Deontologist
    # TASK 2
    Ethics is a set of codes/standards/principles that guide the conduct of an individual/a group/a society to decide on what is right and wrong. Different Ethical theories were proposed by philosophers in various time scale in order to decide between the choices presented in front(Ethical Dilemmas), so as to near the righteousness in that situation.
    Ex: During checkup, Doctor found out that my aunt was at the 4th stage of Breast cancer. Also she had a cardiac attack previously. Applying our primary three moral theories at this situation:
    Doctor Being an Utilitarian : Here more importance is given to consequence. Hence instead of telling the truth directly to her, which increases the possibility of a cardiac arrest, he should prescribe some medicines and inform the companion about the condition.
    Doctor being an Deontologist : Here Duty comes first. That is telling the truth directly to her, irrespective of the consequences that may occur.
    Doctor following Virtue Ethics : Here the importance is for what moral character the doctor possess. His character will guide the action. If he is a virtueous person he may break down the news in the way that doesn’t cause harm to my aunt.
    Hence the decision of the doctor depends if he is a consequentialist or a non-consequentialist as all the 3 theories are right in its own stand. But out of the 3 having good virtue ethics and being an utilitarian brings Doctor close to righteous decision as it establishes Eudaimonia(Human flourishing).
    Similarly, one cannot choose 1 among 3 superhero who characterize the three theories as the absolute one. Given a different real time dynamic situation, the three character may fail as they adhere to one theory as such strictly. But Life is not a movie and we aren’t superhero but could be one by learning to implement the right moral theory at the right situation to bring righteousness and peace under any Ethical dilemmas.

  67. TASK 1 –
    1) D
    2) U
    3) U
    4) VE, D
    5) VE

    TASK 2-
    Although all three ethical theories have their pros and cons, for me, the most ethical theory is of virtue ethics as it emphasizes the cultivation of good character traits, which enables one to be a good person with wisdom, courage, self-control, and compassion. Its Motto is to focus on what sort of person shall I become? rather than, what is my duty? it helps us understand what it means to be a virtuous human being. It not only deals with the rightness or wrongness of individual actions, it guides us to the sort of characteristics and behavior a good person seeks to achieve. In that way, virtue ethics is concerned with the whole of a person’s life rather than particular episodes or actions. By practicing being honest, brave, generous, and so on, a person develops an honorable and moral character. According to Aristotle by honing Virtuous habits people will likely make the right choices when faced with ethical dilemmas. Virtue ethicist highlights the character of a person when in dilemma by placing themselves on that place and think that does he or she wants to be kind of person who takes that particular choice. So, virtue ethics helps us understand, what it means to be a virtuous human being. And it gives us a guide for living life without giving us specific rules for resolving ethical dilemmas.

  68. Task-1
    1-D
    2-U
    3-VE
    4-U
    5-VE

    Task-2
    I think a balance of all the theories would be much more useful than following a particular theory as every theory has both some disadvantages and advantages. Also first of all the situation needs to be analysed properly and depending on that one should indulge in the theories.

  69. Task1-
    1.VE
    2.U
    3.VE
    4.D
    5.VE
    Task 2-
    In Deontology theory have to perform duties with morality without taking accounts of situation and consequences . In Utilitarianism theory believes in great good for greatest number . In this theory there is some possibility of suffering of innocents. Utilitarianism is good for great number but bad for some people . Theory of virtue ethics based on the characteristics of good person like wisdom, courage , self-control and compassion . I agree with the theory of virtue ethics because this theory does not have to suffer inocent and not stick to moral rules without considering consequences . In virtue ethics scope for full analysis of situation with broader sence and have space to apply morality with flavor of Ethics.

  70. Task 1
    1. D , VE
    2. U
    3. VE
    4. U
    5. D, VE

    TASK 2

    In ethical conduct, which theory is to be followed is subjective to an individual’s ethical orientation. According to me ethical virtue leads to maximum good with maximum moral conduct . For example superman has superpowers which could be potential harm for many if bad values take over his conduct , so he has to be responsible as with great power comes great responsibilities. Thus his actions need to be based on virtu ethics which guides him to be best of himself and do greater good for many following values like compassion, selflessness, duties etc.
    However, theory selection for conduct is variable with person to person and all of these have their own merits and demerits and denotes persons ethical orientation.

  71. 1.Virtue Ethics
    2.Utilitarianism
    3.Utilitarianism
    4.Utilitarianism
    5.Deontology

    Of the three choices, I would choose Superman or Virtue Ethics over Utilitarianism and deontology as virtue ethics qualitatively focuses on the framework of what makes a good decision and delineates if there is a premise of wisdom, integrity, courage, compassion and self control to make a more balanced practical decison alongwith human emotion.afterall Individuals collectively make the greatest number.

    Superman saved the school children from drowning even at the expense of revealing himself and was not selfish to let them perish for his own happiness. It wasn’t his duty or obligation to jump into action and yet fulfills the predicament that no innocent should be sacrificed.

    Virtue Ethics can be seen to have a upper hand over Utilitarianism as it includes a element of compassion. It doesn’t discount the means to an end. In tough times, high stakes and urgent choices if we give in our values or importance of a human life then we lose the test of time. Every virtue or goodness adds something to us in testing times and everything weakness chips something away in the long run. Even when no one is watching, we are witness to our own stories and choices. Just as Thanos sacrificed his daughter for the greatest good of the highest numbers, the number was in effect diminished as the bargain. A lose lose situation may have been salvaged to a win lose situation. In contrast, Iron man sacrificed himself for his daughter. Do we seek sacrifice without asking or do we offer it. Are we entitled to make decisions and speak for everyone or first ourselves? If power is deemed to corrupt and we seek it for flourishing humanity, we must be ready for it rather than cower in the name of tough choices. Virtue ethics by example and inspiration encourages to do better for oneself as well as others. Utilitarianism may seek happiness for oneself as a means of happiness to others while deontology in the name of duty may put others before oneself.

  72. 1. Virtue ethics
    2.utilitarianism
    3.utilitarianism
    4.virtue ethics
    5.deontology
    When we read all the points like deontology, utilitarianism and virtual ethics they are correct in their places but the most ethical one is Captain America because as we can see in the film he alone comes out to form the team so that they all can able to fight against thanos and at a same time he also helps vision in the situation when thanks army attact him. The main motive of the Captain America is that no innocent should died when half of the universe seeped out by thanos.

    I think deontology is the best because it’s provide us to know the nature of duty and obligations and reminds us about the duties we should follow and to think about the people in the universe as we can see the work done by the Captain America.

  73. Task 1-
    1. Deontology
    2. Utilitarianism
    3. Virtue Ethics
    4. Deontology
    5. Virtue Ethics

    Task 2-

    There is not any exact definition of right and wrong all the three ethical theory have their own importance. Deontology focus on short term goals and Utilitarianism focus on long term goals while Virtue Ethics doesn’t have a exact time decided. However according to my observation Virtue Ethics is more ethical that is associated with Superman. Person having virtue ethics are always kind and selfless in any situation because that’s what their character is. They do for others not having any personal goal aur just because it’s their duty. Unlike other two theories virtue ethics deals with a wider range of questions. According to Aristotle a virtues person is someone who has ideal characteristics. Virtue Ethics doesn’t have a set of guidelines which are to be followed but it means acting as any other virtues person.

  74. *TASK 1*

    1. Deontology
    2. Utilitarianism
    3. virtue ethics
    4. Utilitarianism
    5. Virtue Ethics

    *TASK 2*

    The philosophy of utilitarianism, deontology and virtue ethics practiced by Thanos, Captain America and Superman respectively can be deeply understood by the analysing the consequences of each on a decision made. While Utilitarianism emphasises on the larger good irrespective of the consequences, deontology doesn’t go beyond a duty to achieve a desired outcome, virtue ethics on the other hand makes good character a goal to make a decision. Each approach comes with a justification for a decision, however the process is not absolute or ideal. The dilemma will needed to be resolved by analysing pros and cons of each approch and choose the better one of all. Furthermore, the decision made will be needed to be reasoned ethical. Therefore, as much as the action of each superheroes- Thanos, Captain America and Superman- in isolation may seem to be the most ethical or viable solution, critical thinking about each approach will help us develop our approach to the dilemma instead of assuming just one as the most ethical without critical thinking.

  75. 1.virtue ethics
    2. utilitarianism
    3 utilitarianism
    4. utilitarianism
    5.virtue ethics

    TASK 2- Ethics is all about being right or wrong,ethical dilemmas are situations in which choice is to be made between two or more options.
    All three ethical conducts are different from one another and it solely depends on the kind of situation that which theory is likely to be applied. Captain America followed the theory of deontology for whom moral duties are on the priority, whereas Thanos believed in the theory of utilitarianism it yearns for maximum happiness for maximum people but it leaves others. On the other hand virtue ethics emphasise cultivation of good character to be a good person, as per my point of view no theory is best at its own and no theory is bad either every theory has it’s pro’s and con’s. However, if we have to choose one of them we should adopt virtue ethics as it focuses to be a good, kind, ethical, compassionate, humane being. It encourages us to learn and practice virtues at all the times and helps in cultivation of humanity.

  76. 1.VE(Cuz gandhiji thought about the lives of the people when violence is involved, and suspended it from further consequences)
    2.U(They thought they need to balance the things, since if we are partition then both would get benefited in future.
    3.VE(As germany is in need of support and Gandhiji thought it is right way to support them, according to him, and extended his support.
    4.VE(The medicines should be benificial and save many lives)
    5.VE,D(No innocent should be victimized and its our ethics to protect an innocent)
    In my opinion a decision is based on visualizing all the sides of the story, considering the impact which it is going to make in the future and the people which it is going to effect in good or bad. Its not about which decision to be made which we follow according to our personal opinion, but rather considering a rational aspect which benefits the society, keeping in mind that no innocent should be harassed.

  77. 1Deontology
    2Utilitarianism
    3Utilitarianism
    4Virtue ethics
    5Virtue ethics All the theories are good or bad in one way or another depending upon the situation. Deontology means obligatory to follow all moral principles at all the time, irrespective of its consequences whereas utilitarianism focus more on consequences . Deontology focus on short sighted vision which can be detrimental in the longer run and utilitarianism focus more on far sighted goals whose immediate brunt could be faced by few people for the welfare of more people. In my vision, both are more extreme thoughts and i will choose to go for some mid way i.e virtue ethics. Having virtue means doing the right thing, at the right time, in the right way, in the right amount, towards the right people. There is not any particular rule book which we need to follow. In virtue, we have the flexibility to analyse the situation first and act accordingly. As we are social and rational animal, so our function involves using reason and get along with it. It is also justifying the basic nature of human being. All we need to know how to handle a situation and have a good judgement and this is learned by every human being by going through different phases of life and attaining a practical wisdom.

  78. Task 1
    1 . U – save large no. Of lives .
    D- he was leader duty to save lives .
    VE – due to concept of ahimsa .
    2. U- seems for minority but ultimate goal to save lives of large no. Of people.
    D- leaders of new india its duty to stop communal violence in possible way.
    VE – aim was to save humanity and flourishment of human being .
    3 . U -maybe he thought if we help they will leave the country without violence.
    D- maybe he thought germans were more dangerous then britishers so his duty to save from bigger problem .
    VE – maybe he thought we should not attack on enemy when they were weak .
    4. U- govt . For well being for large no. Of people .
    D – choosen by people so duty to do so.
    VE – for human flourishment for well being for people for humanity .
    5 . U – if one lady can offend large no. Of ladies can also offend from it.
    D – as an gentleman it’s his duty to respect women.
    VE – to offending people around you it is not good for well being of society .
    So the friend did wrong in every aspect of ethics equally so , he need to start respecting women for full filing ever aspect of ethics .
    In this way every situations have multiple dimensions we must have to see every possible dimension then go to the conclusion.

    Task no. 2
    Ethics is a subject of understanding what is right or wrong in a balanced way . Ethics have many types of point of views . But divided into 3 parts mainly .
    1 . Utilitarian – it’s a type of ethics where large no. Of people must benefited .
    Ex . Capitalism .
    2 . Deontology – it’s a type of ethics where duty is important and bigger then every thing .
    Ex . Army .
    3. Virtue ethics – it’s a type of ethics where moral values , humanity and human flourishment are important .
    Ex. Social services .
    In this way every type of ethics have there own advantages and disadvantages so
    ‘Don’t judge a book by it’s cover , we must have to read every chapter carefully then come to the conclusion’ . So we need to understand that every situation have multiple dimensions we need to look every dimensions of a situation in equal manner . After that we can go to the conclusion . There is no any ethical value systems are great, every aspect is equally important for well being of mankind .

  79. 1.Deontology
    2.utilitarianism
    3.virtue ethics
    4.virtue ethics
    5.deontology
    In the my all three theories are do some good when read individually.The best among them could be deontology.Even Indian Law states that “let a hundred be acquitted, but one innocent should not be convicted” .All our institutions,organisations,society,family,individuals have certain freedom along with they also have duty, this sense of duty is one good trait, which if they perform rightly makes the world a better place.

  80. TASK 1:-
    1. deontology
    2. deontology and utilitarianism
    3.utilitarianism
    4.deontology
    5. virtue ethics and deontology

    TASK 2:-
    Ethics is defined as moral philosophy or discipline concerned with what is morally wrong or right. Sometimes one gets trapped in the process of choosing path or to decide what is wrong or right as road once travelled cannot be retraced and causes all the difference in ones life.
    Now, to solve the ethical dilemma we have theories mainly- utilitarianism, deontology & virtue ethics. Utilitarianism is an ethical theory different from egoism but states that whatever the mean the path we choose if it leads to happiness or what is morally right then the path is also right. Whereas deontology is the principle which follow a certain rulebook to do ones duty by choosing right path and virtue ethics is related with evolution of good characterstic traits.
    In my opinion unlike thanos utilitarianism which leads to the killing of innocents for future betterment is meaningless because to get pleasure in future we are killing and destroying present generation and he did not considered the question that how he will choose whom to kill? will it solve the problem of scarcity absolutely? or what if in this killing stakes more resources at the verge of extinction? On the other hand captain america representing deontology did not considered once that their attitude can create problem for so many and superman depicting virtue ethics would do the best in that situation as he will not choose wrong path nor decline his duties. But what could be best is the balance between virtue ethics and deontology which would handle the situation better and did not let even the one or many innocent lives on stake.

  81. 1. VE
    2.U
    3. U
    4. D
    5.VE
    Task 2
    As Captain America follows the path of demonology, means duty .It is based on universal norms and rules. On other hand virtual ethics simply means good person of positive traits. A man helping which got injured in road accident shows his virtue of kindness and humanity.At last utilitarianism means greatest good for greatest no.It simply means Actions should measure on terms of happiness. We should perform our duties irrespective of the consequences of our actions.I think deontology is the path differ our morality. So we should follow the path of deontology. As right is right we should always stand with the right decision and stand with truth and to be in a path of deontology .

  82. Topic 1
    1)D
    2)U
    3)U
    4)U
    5)VE
    Topic 2:
    The three ethical conducts utilitarianism,deontology and virtue ethics are different with each other and can be used in respective situations.
    Utilitarian is the one who aims for the end results without thinking about the consequences. Like Thanos, he always wanted the world to be limited, so that everyone gets enough amount of stuff to live in a better society. Then, we have virtue ethics which deals with compassion, good,courage etc., They tend to be more on virtue side. In which they wanted to have individual integrity and behave in a right way for the betterment. Where as deontology, capitan America always believed in the process not the end results. He is a non consequentialist. He believes everyone have right to decide the situation in an ethical manner though the situation may or may not be sure. I stand on deontology, that there should be a duty based morality in the business.

  83. Ethical means belief of a person what is right or wrong in his/her way.So,by this we can’t completely say someone ethical or unethical because something ethical for me might be unethical for other.We might be think same or not.Hence, we can say that these all superheroes were ethical in their own way.
    As we had seen ,captain America following “deontology”system which is a duty based system of ethics which holds that some acts are intrinsically right or wrong regardless of their consequences and that moral agents have duties to follow moral commands or rules regardless of their consequences.
    But according to me Captain America is the most moral of all. He is a man who took the burden of war. He led his fellow comrades to battle and came out on top. And, he sacrificed himself to save millions.Captaim America has the strongest morals because he is truly selfless, rightious and courageous and here he also follow “Virtue Ethics ” which emphasize the cultivation of good character traits.

    • Task 1:
      1.Deontology (D)
      2.Utilitarianism(U)
      3.Utilitarianism (U)
      4.Utilitarianism(U)
      5.Virtue Ethics(VE)

      Task 2:
      Ethical means belief of a person what is right or wrong in his/her way.So,by this we can’t completely say someone ethical or unethical because something ethical for me might be unethical for other.We might be think same or not.Hence, we can say that these all superheroes were ethical in their own way.
      As we had seen ,captain America following “deontology”system which is a duty based system of ethics which holds that some acts are intrinsically right or wrong regardless of their consequences and that moral agents have duties to follow moral commands or rules regardless of their consequences.
      But according to me Captain America is the most moral of all. He is a man who took the burden of war. He led his fellow comrades to battle and came out on top. And, he sacrificed himself to save millions.Captaim America has the strongest morals because he is truly selfless, rightious and courageous and here he also follow “Virtue Ethics ” which emphasize the cultivation of good character traits.

  84. 1.D
    2.U
    3.V
    4.U
    5.V
    According to me superman is the most ethical. I agree with virtue ethics. Superman helped everyone selflessly, he didn’t have a benefitting interest. One should try to be selfless. It is a trait of good human being. It defines our character and others get benefitted . As a civil servant also one needs to posses this quality and should always be ready to help others. I do not disagree with deontology and utilitarianism, there are many situations where we have to do our duty and in many situations have to go against duty and do what is good for great number of people. Basically situation defines the ethical quality one should go with.

  85. Task 1-
    1. VE
    2. U
    3. VE
    4. D
    5. D
    Task 2-
    On closely observing the mentioned superheroes, the “Virtual ethic” seems to be more ethical. It dwells in the traits of being good person who has honesty, wisdom as well as a compassionate one. When we observe the other two characters, they seem to have some adverse effects too. Although they are meant for the betterment of the human lives, still somehow they provide negative consequences.
    Deontology is a term which depends only upon the completion of the duty without thinking of the end results which may or maynot be fruitful. Utilitariarism may lead to suffering of the innocents. Thoughit is made for the availability of the resources abundantly to the mankind, still the method seems unethical. There are other methods to fulfill the need and destroying a large population can’t be the solution, wheareas, virtual ethics doesn’t harm anybody but develoos kind and humane nature towards others and can be considered as an act of “Commensalism”.

  86. Task 1
    1)V
    2)U
    3)U
    4)D
    5)V

    Task 2
    >Deontology is based on the rules, or universal norms. A person is said to be morally correct when he conforms the rules. Ex: Capt. America, he abstains from killing a person, even if killing that person could bring about greater benefits.
    >Virtue Ethics focuses on the positive traits of a person. A person is right only if his actions express a certain virtue.
    Ex: A man helping a old lady cross the road has the virtue of kindness.
    >Utilitarianism emphasis on greatest good for the greatest number. Actions should be measured in terms of happiness, or pleasure that they produce.Good consequences = Good actions.
    Thanos plans to randomly kill half of all living beings from the universe so that the remaining half can flourish on the limited resources of the universe.
    >There is no absolute rights and wrongs in philosophy, we can only argue which can be the best method to go about.
    We should be flexible enough to adopt the methods according to the situations. However Virtue Ethics provide greater degree of good in ethical choices,wisdom (as ‘wisdom finds truth’) and correct assessment of any given situation are key in making ethically best decisions.

  87. Task 1:
    1. Utilitarianism
    2. Deontology
    3. Virtue Ethics
    4. Virtue Ethics
    5. Deontology

    Task 2:
    According to deontological ethics, the acts are guided by morality and the duties of the individual. Irrespective of the consequences of the actions, the person has to follow moral rules and perform its duty. Mahatma Gandhi had followed the principles of deontology while fighting the freedom struggle. Despite the horrors and atrocities committed by the British, Mahatma Gandhi never resorted to violence. He had stuck to the principles of Ahimsa till the end.
    Utilitarianism guides human actions according to end result. The acts which would fetch greatest good for the greatest number would be considered to be the ideal act according to this philosophical view point. If we consider the imposition of national lockdown due to the pandemic of COVID – 19, we will find that the migrant workers had suffered the most. However, the lockdown was necessary in the national interest.
    Virtue ethics consists of both the principles of deontology and utilitarianism. It focuses upon following the good virtues and morality while at the same time, it looks into well – being and happiness brought by it.
    We should perform our duties irrespective of the consequences of our actions. Our virtues and morals are the things which define us. Hence, by compromising with our morality we will end up losing ourselves. So, we should follow the path of deontology.

  88. Task1:-
    1) U
    2) V.E/U
    3) E
    4) D
    5) V.E

    Task2:-
    Utilitarianism,deontology and virtue ethics.
    These are different and can be used in respective situations.
    utilitarianism related to the greatest number for greatest goods is a sort of extremism, deontology related with the duty no matter what is the consequences of actions,
    Virtue ethics talks about cultivating a good character which seems to be a set of ethical values.
    From the following superheroes
    I’ll go with superman (virtue ethics) The virtue ethics theory is the most ethical one in my view as it emphasizes more on developing good traits in a person rather than defining anything good or bad.

  89. 1-Deontology
    2-Utilitarian
    3-virtue ethics
    4-Deontology
    5-virtue ethics
    I appreciate the ideologies and superpowers of all the three heros and each of them carry their own merits,but if its asked to me, to whom
    I completely agree upon, it would be CAPTAIN AMERICA. Captain America effortlessly and immediately establishes himself as the leader of every group he is in. His theory of deontology persisted in doing right at any cost ,the consequences weren’t a matter to him .The ones who followed him knew that if they adopt his leadership strategies they would end up doing good .When the motive behind his acts outstanded to be worthier than the consequences he proved to be a better leader.Also he never asked anyone to do something he himself couldnt do. Even though his costume is based on the US flag he didn’t completely support all what the government did,he was the the first to oppose when the government fell short of ideals. His sense of right and wrong is a personality trait I would say,rather than something he is strive to achieve. Moreover he emphasis the right of superheros to their freedom to operate autonomously ,regarding their true identities which help protect civilians as well as their own loved ones.

  90. Task 1
    1.U
    2.D
    3.U
    4.VE
    5.VE
    Task 2
    According to me, the best most appropriate approach to solve ethical dilemmas is Dentology. Since Dent means duty i.e. we just need to perform our duty. It is also said in the vedas That Do your Karma , dont wait for the fruit because it is in the hands of god. It resides in the womb of future. In the similar way .Every decision may be right or wrong according to the perspective taken into account. Some deeds which are fruitful for any individual can be conflicting and even destructiveto any other community. Hence noone in this world can be 100% accurate knowing what’s right or whats wrong. Or whats result it will yield. So we should only do our duty based on our thinking regardless of the consequences and thats what the dentology approach explains.
    Hence supeehero Captain America according to me is the best as his approach is the same. He said we dont trade lives amd try to save the innocent people .He tries to do what is right in his point of view without thinking about its consequences.

  91. 1.) Deontology
    2.) Utilitarianism
    3.) Utilitarianism and Deontology
    4.) Utilitarianism
    5.) Virtue Ethics

    In my opinion, the School of Virtue Ethics (as associated with Superman) is the most ethical and appropriate school of thought. This is because Virtue Ethics as an idea is not a function of any other input variable, unlike Utilitarianism (which is driven by the desire for good or pleasure) or Deontology (which is driven by the idea and pillars of Moral command). Virtue Ethics stands independent, all by itself. It is completely a means-oriented, route and is not influenced by ends. It conveys the idea, that in the process of making something, say a cuisine if you select the right ingredients and follow the right set of procedures and steps, you will surely end up with the right end product. Thus, it overall leads to the greater good and development of the person as well as the society. There is a reason why we are taught from childhood, to just focus on our deeds, the fruits will follow.

  92. 1. D
    2. U
    3. D
    4. D
    5. VE

    According to me, we cannot choose any one theory as the most ethical as compared to other. It would depend on the situation presented. Depending upon the circumstances provided we can prefer to apply one theory as against other. If we want a long run effect, then I believe that we should choose deontology and virtue ethics. This is because it will keep intact the morals needed to strive as a society. But, for a short run result(effect) we can go for Utilitarianism.

  93. 1-D
    2-U
    3-U
    4-VE
    5-VE
    In my opinion virtue ethics is the most ethical theory as no person is good or ethical ftom Birth ,so the cultivation of good character traits that enables one to be good is the way as it can prove help to humanity. People are the ones which make society, and people can make themselves to heal the society better.

  94. Good Evening Sir !
    Im Najla,Your Second Batch Student

    In this topic,Ethics
    I came to understand some logics and real of meanings of Ethics and A a lot related to ethics. I have never watched Avengers ,Infinity Wars, So it seems little tough to understand the view on this sir, But Through the meaning I have got the point about this sir.

    My answers…
    TASK – 1:

    1. DEONTOLOGY
    2. UTILITARIANISM
    3. UTILITARIANISM
    4. DEONTOLOGY
    5. VIRTUE ETHICS

    TASK 2 :

    Ethics is a branch of knowledge that deals with moral principles. Moral Principles that govern a person’s behaviour or the conduction of an activity.

    Deontolgy is the normal ethical theory that the morality of an action should be based on whether that action itself is right or wrong under a series of rules, rather than based on the consequencies of the action. It is a theory that suggest actions that are good or bad according to a clear set of rules. It holds that atleast some acts are morally obligatory regardless of this consequences for human welfare.
    For ex : Captain America, in this scene,where the mean was it was their duty to save the lives of people..Even if it was a big strange too,no innocent should be killed. This is the moto applied here.

    Utilitarianism is a theory of morality which means of the actions that foster happiness or pleasure and oppossess action that cause unhappiness or harm.
    Utilitarianism would say that an action is right if it results in the happiness of the greatest number of people in a society or a groups which maximises a general quality.
    There is no rules but they expect the happiness or pleasure of people or society or group in a great majority.

    Virtue Ethics means it inlcudes Honesty, Courage , Love , Compassion , Generosity , Fidelity , Integrity , Fairness, Self Control , Prudence , and it includes and concerned with traits of character that are essential to human flourishing and not with the enumeration of duties.
    For Ex : Spider – Man , He-Man, Bat Man, who help the people with love and saving their lives and he doesn’t even think about him, his courage is really great.
    I really agree with virtue ethics, because of the presence of love,courage and honesty.

  95. 1- deontology
    2- utilitarism
    3 virtue ethics
    4 utilitatinism
    5 virtue ethics

    According to me the best theory that correctly explains the ethical dillemas to be be solved is the utilitarinism. In utilitarinism it is said that the action produces results and those results should greatest good for the greatest number. Utilitarism in a based on consequentilism where consequences matters the most.

  96. 1.deontology
    2.utilitarianism
    3.utilitarianism
    4.deontology/utilitarianism
    5.virtue ethics
    Deontological ethics is where there is special emphasis on the relationship between the duty and the morality.it basically focuses on logics as well as ethics. The nature of the act itself is the only relevant factor for moral evaluation regardless of the consequences.utilitarianism is where an action is right as far as it maximises general utility.everyone’s happiness counts equally . virtue ethics is a theory of morality where virtues plays a central role. All of the three theories have their own important role and they totally depend on the situations and the given circumstances.

  97. Task1
    1-U,D
    2-U
    3-D
    4-U
    5-VE,D
    Task2
    Decision of ethical theory according to me solely rests on the situation because one specific theory will not be correct all time and adhering to one theory leads to monotonous decision. Example, if there is a situation where maximum people will though some discrepancies occur, i will go with utilitarianism [free vaccination during pandemic amidst capitalist mindset]. Deontology theory may suit for a civil servant not to involve in corrupt practice amidst any circumstance. Virtue ethics is the basic one which allows one to decide according to their own virtue and it allows one to follow morals with great integrity.

  98. Virtual Ethics
    Utilitarianism
    Utilitarianism
    Deontology
    Virtual Ethics

    Ans- Every superhero has ethical ideologies which have its own justification.
    Captain America follows deontology whose moral duties are more important that the glorious consequences.
    Whereas Thanos believes in utilitarianism i.e greatest good for greatest number. He emphasizes on ultimate consequences and believes that every action should be judged on the basis of pain and pleasure .
    And Superman tends to be a Virtue Ethicst and emphasizes on the cultivation of good character traits that enables one to be a good persopn. (Eg.- Wisdom, Courage, Self control, Compassion).

    In a nutshell Deontology and Virtue Ethics both are consequentialist theory whereas Utilitarianism is a consequntialist theory. A balance should be maintained between utilitarianism and other ethical ideologies, of which an example is Harm principle. “We ought to live by rules. In general, are likely to lead to greatest good for greatest number.” not always.

  99. Task1
    1-U,D
    2-U
    3-D
    4-U
    5-VE,D
    Task2
    Deciding of ethical theory according to me solely rests on the situation because one specific theory wont ne correct all time and sticking to one theory leads to monotonous decision.so for example if there is a situation where maximum people will be benifitted though some discrepencies occur then il go with utilitarianism [free vaccination during covid amidst capitalist mindset]. Deontoly theory may suit for a civil servant not to involve in corrupt practice amidst any circumstance. Virtue ethics is the basic one which allows one to decide according to their own virtue and it allows one to follow morals wit great integrity. if somethung pls do correct me sir.

  100. 1. D (because Gandhi jee followed his principles of nonviolence, he followed his duties)
    2. U (because the freedom fighters were more conscious about a peaceful future, a peaceful country)
    3. U (because GandhiJee now wanted complete independence by any means, as he had already given the slogan “DO OR DIE”
    And he felt known enemy i.e British is better than unknown friend i.e Germany.)
    4. U (if free medical equipments could save lives, it’s better… So govt is more concerned about results.)
    5. D and VE( it is my duty and courage to stand by victim)

    All three theories mentioned above have their own merits and demerits. But i, if i have to take a decision assuming that i am a civil servant, would like to choose virtue ethics.
    Before Joining civil service, during service and after service one thing is common for sure and that is I AM A HUMAN so it intrinsically becomes necessary to have compassion, courage, self control.
    Compassion, particularly in India where most numbers of POOR (84 million people living in extreme poverty which makes up ~6% of its total population as of May 2021), ILLITERATE ( still only 77% of people is literate), UNHEALTHY (A/c to NFHS, India has the 2nd highest obese population with 155 million people and this is just one disease) reside; All major RELIGIONS are found here, CASTE is unique to India, More than 19,500 LANGUAGES or DIALECTS are spoken in India out of which 22 are constitutionally recognized, India is the one among the MEGA-DIVERSE countries in terms of BIODIVERSITY, becomes most important trait for a civil servant. Where compassion comes in, duty takes pillion seat. So You can’t always follow your duties strictly nor you can take arbitrary decision in the hope of a good result. There must a BALANCE between the two.
    To a greater extent, i will follow my duties with compassion without thinking negative outcomes, if any.
    Excellence of moral and intellectual character helps a civil servant to give best to most part of the society.

  101. Task 1
    1. Deontology.
    2. Utilitarianism.
    3. Utilitarianism.
    4. Deontology.
    5. Virtue Ethics.

    Task 2

    As per my view and analysis, I go with the superhero theory of virtue ethics. Being a human is defined by our connections, by our emotions we love, care, fear, grow, and angry. Superman, he feels of those. He feels the man when it counts the most in his humanity and he worries about it. Superman doesn’t weaken us, he strengthens us to help each other. Why? He’s not alien just not come with superpowers he’s a man with incredible gifts used to help people who need them. The real key to understanding superman that he is a man, those we can also relate to that, we can also aspire to him as an example of the good that all we can do, what we should do, and the unity between people when we help each other. He’s the first hero, arguably he’s the best hero, and the true man of tomorrow living today. The journey from a common boy and his struggles to superman.

    Aristotle was the master of virtues. He proposed 11 virtues. Those are courage, temperance, liberty, magnificence, magnanimity, pride, patience, truthfulness, witness, friendliness, and modesty. Every virtue hangs in the middle of two vices excess and deficiency. Virtue theory says you want to be a good person, don’t need to set a rule book to be a good person. The ultimate goal is Happiness.

    Why? In my view, if we clear what we want we can achieve anything. This virtue theory explains human beings to being human.
    With great teachers and guides, we can cultivate good habits with practice. This is a learning process and applying to our self-growth. Those things made us a better person. You know how to handle yourself and how to get along with others. once development will occur predictably good behavior reflects. We want to learn virtuous by watching it and doing it.

  102. TASK 1
    1. VE
    2. U
    3. U
    4. U
    5. VE

    TASK 2
    Ethics is the moral principles that governs a persons behaviour .The three types of ethics are virtue ethics,consequentialist ethics,and deontological or duty based ethics .Each approach provides a different way to understand ethics.As the three super heroes we also bound to follow one of the ethics this depends on the situation we are facing . Thanos believes in utilitarianism, as wiping out half of the universe would make it more sustainable, which is heading towards extinction due to depletion of resources. Captain America believes in deontology because sacrificing Vision or any individual, to save the universe is inherently wrong, irrespective of the intended outcomes. Then, Superman believes in virtue ethics, for whom cultivating virtues, in order to become a good person is the ulterior motive of human life. I would agree with the theory of Virtue Ethics as it emphasizes individual integrity and intellectual character.As all individual collectively make the society. As if all people follow virtue ethics there will be no more wars and it leads to peaceful world.

  103. Dear sir, here’s my take :
    Task 1:
    1) D , VE
    2) U
    3) U
    4) U, VE
    5)U , D , VE

    Task 2:
    Analysing the 3 theories:
    1) Captain American seems to be “Deontologist” because he lays more emphasis on ways and less on ends .
    Even saving of half of the world’s population couldn’t convince him wrt trading life of one person.
    Deontologist lays focus on quality of action. The theory bode well in many situations eg: while facing dilemma of : trigger happy culture Vs behavioural change when discussing about solutions wrt extremism , killing or saving life wrt a situation , and many such good vs bad situations.
    However, the theory seems to be on defensive when considering questions of utility . Eg: not acceptance to passive resistance by moderatists of INC led to its split in SURAT SESSION and resulted in many youths going leaderless and extremists.
    2) Thanos seems to be “utilitarian”because he considers maximum utility for maximum number of people by making optimum resource-population ratio.
    Utilitarian theories guides while making decisions of scale. Eg: killing 1 person and saving millions , compromising on facism and saving whole country (SC Bose) and much more .
    However, the theory fails when deciding issues of “quality”. Eg: questions wrt trading lives of people and much more.

    3) Superman follows Virtue Ethics by focussing on core aspects of wisdom, peace, compassion, help to others and much more which leads to state of EUDAMONIA.
    The theory is more of theoretical in approach . Fixing our qualities can be taken advantage of by others. Eg: India’s compassion towards China didn’t deter it to wage 1962 war on it.
    However, the theory is essential to make larger peace at individual to global level. Nuclear non-proliferation, UnFCCC etc are examples to it.

    As ethics deals with right or wrong based on certain core principles and values, the decisions arrived while following the same principles at different situations my be different and even counter-productive at times. All theories have their significance wrt taking an informed-decisions by following certain principles. However , the relative decisions, processes and outcomes of each theory should be objectively gauged before arriving at final decisions .
    Thank You Sir.
    Regards

  104. 1-D
    2-U
    3-U
    4-D
    5-VE

    According to me SuperMan is the most Ethical.Because he lived by the code of Virtue Ethic which is a moral character of the person carring out an action.
     On the other hand I agree with Virtue Ethic because Virtue Ethic is very important in our daily life specially in our Work Place.If an Officer/Manager of an office or in any workplace does not have Virtue Ethic to carry out an example when to reach the Office/workplace or what to do or what not to do.But if a Leader is having a good Virtue Ethic his subordinate will simply follow in every step.
     

  105. 1- Virtual Ethics
    2 – Utilitarianism
    3 – Utilitarianism
    4 – Virtual Ethics
    5 – Deontology
    According to my opinion, I want to prefer Superman because he truly depicts the characteristics, nature, as well as features of ethics in true sense as we can see. Rest of two have a lack of 100% ethics characteristics, as if we talk about firstly deontology – in this is just only to follow the rule or perform duty, whether it is in public interest or not, utilitarianism – it shows to sacrifice or give up by those portion of living beings who can’t acquire due to lack of materialistic or other type of things which bring calmness in their life as result in to give up or leave in order to feed or provide another portion of living beings to survive.
    So, therefore, comparing all above three ethics dilemmas, the appropriate, satisfying and justified ethics is virtual ethics that’s of Superman as it shows the compassion, feelings and cares in which their can be take decision in entire public interest without leaving one living being also.

  106. 1) D
    2) U
    3) U
    4) D
    5) VE
    We do see these qualities be it utilitarianism, deontology or virtual ethics amongst people we meet. It is certain that there isn’t any quantity that is better than the other as everyone has got its own pros and cons. It is all based on what we personally prefer.

    Utilitarian intentions of Thanos has ultimately got benefits for this world in terms of burden reducing, but this is happening at the cost of lives of half of the world population. If we think in way that it is better to let half of the population live a good life rather than everyone struggling to survive, Thanos could be preferred. If we are result oriented then we might have to sacrifice on the means.

    Deontologist seems to be like an ideal option especially because of the goodness and value it promotes, but if we look at the end result, what we see will be a world suffering with consequences. But Captain America has got a point when he says “We don’t trade lives”. Why should one half suffer to make the life of other half better?

    Virtual ethics is all about inculcating good traits. Every action we do, there is a scope for every one to be a better individual. But it all depends on how well we make use of the qualities we acquire. And how much we contribute to the society.

    All these seems to have their own benefits and consequences but if asked I’d prefer virtue ethics because it’s a long time asset and not situation based virtue. Virtue ethics could be beneficial if we are willing to make the most out of it.

  107. The answers for Task 1 of assignment:-
    1. U
    2. U
    3. U
    4. D
    5. VE

    The answer for Task 2 of assignment:-
    As per definitions, deontology, is a theory that suggests actions are good or bad according to clear set of rules, utilitarianism- a theory of morality which advocates actions that foster happiness or pleasure and opposes that cause unhappiness, or harm, on the other hand virtue ethics is a class of normative ethical theories which treat the concept of moral virtue as central to ethics.
    As per my understanding, all three forms of ethics have their own methods and solutions for the problems faced by the society. Thus, making it important for varied or different number of people living in our society. Though, the modern society has not made virtue less important, and even as modern life has become more diversified, the rule-following ethics have taken on even greater importance. But, on a personal note the ethics of virtue is a positive trait which makes its possessor a good human being. Because, the society which we live in now is traumatized with many negative characters and relative chapters. Thus, to have some amount of neutrality in the society a league of people with virtue ethics is needed.
    According to Plato, the 4 key virtues are wisdom, courage, temperance and justice. In today’s world these key virtues are extremely important to give/maintain a balanced society, which would cater for the happiness of everyone. Thus, among the 3 superheroes, I find superman the most ethical.

  108. 1-D
    2-U
    3-U
    4-D
    5-VE

    Task 2:-
    All the above Theories of ethics Do not Justify one or the another.Moreover , It is merely possible to find a one path solution for all problems..Thus, Everything comes with Benefits and drawbacks… However They solve one side of problem it doesn’t conclude to – we have done all the things right.. There is no right and no wrong In ethical dilemmas .. It Just the way we perceive to do the thing in a good character , As an virtue ethics..
    Rationality to a ethical dilemma become sometimes important. But is doesn’t mean we wipe out Consequences

  109. •Task 1
    Ans-
    1- D
    2- U
    3- VE
    4- D
    5- VE

    •Task 2

    Ans-
    Captain America is the most Ethical. Because he is taking a deontological stand. And I think that Deontology is a good ethical theory because someone who follow duty based ethics should do right thing. When something gonna wrong it’s our duty to correct it. For example :- If something getting wrong or any bad things happens in any district then it’s a duty of the district magistrate to correct it and convert the bad thing in to a good thing by their action. Means if everyone follows a duty based ethics then everything is getting best in our society. So I feel that Deontology ( a duty based ethics) is a best ethical theory.

  110. Task 1 :-
    1- V.E,D
    2-U
    3-U
    4-V.E
    5-D,V.E

    Task 2:-
    According to ethics,the difference between what’s right and what’s wrong varies from situation to situation and from person to person ,so a balance has to be made to arrive at a decision.In my opinion,all the three etchical theory U,D,V.E has it’s own consequences.Like deontology is a duty based system and moral agents have to follow moral commanders or rules regardless of their consequences.In utilitarianism,it believes in greatest good for greatest number.And in virtue ethics,it emphasize the cultivation of good characters.So,all three of them have both positive and negative aspects,so it is not possible to say which ehtical theory is best or suitable for all situations.Sometimes by being good or having good moral values can’t solve the problem and also to solve the problem we can’t get selfish to arrive at any decision,so a balance decision has to be made to get a decision.Sometimes Person have to use ethical theory or mixtures of theory to get a balanced decision according to the situation.But if have to choose one then I’ll go with virtue ehtics because the decision will be of good moral values and for betterment of lives of society.

  111. 1.D
    2.D
    3.U
    4. VE
    5. VE

    TASK 2
    . In deontology able to make decision keeping your morals intact is a hard job to do example could be Karan where he support Kauravas even though they are doing wrong. Utilitarian on the other hand is another extreme ethics where end result are important than the intent, as in case of Thanos. Virtue ethics talks about cultivating a good character which seems to be a set of ethical values. Superheroes have superpowers and based on their belief system, they have used it according to their moral value alignment. Ethics depends on situation at hand at any given point.

  112. 1 VE
    2 U
    3 D
    4 U
    5 VE
    I would go with idea of virtue ethics . Reasons being
    It is means based approach
    It talks about inculcating moral values- courage , wisdom etc . Wity these values person is likely to serve his duties better and will be committed to help others .
    It focusses on laying strong foundation so that person can perform actions without having inner guilt even if he gets punished for his actions he will satisfied that he followed good moral values
    Also virtues ethics will make one follow pronciples of deontology and utilitarianism

  113. TASK I:

    1) D
    2) U
    3) VE
    4) VE
    5) D
    ———–
    TASK II:

    The reason why ethics continues to intrigue us is that it is never easy. It is very difficult to arrive at the ultimate ethical decision if there are any. Rather, there are only decisions that can be more ethical or least ethical. We have to analyze these three ethical theories keeping this in mind.

    Captain America’s deontological approach promotes an insular view of ethics. Life is majorly about grey areas where there are no absolute rights or wrongs. In such instances, it is imperative that we pursue bad means to prevent the worst ends. The deontological approach ends up upholding a selfish, self-centered, and less ethical society.

    Utilitarianism yearns for maximum happiness for the maximum people. But it leaves out the others, most often a significant minority. Thanos’ argument for the well-being of the fifty percent is predicated upon the misery and pain of the other fifty percent. This dilutes the ethical component in utilitarian theory.

    Of the three theories, I tend to concur with the one espoused by Superman- The Virtue Ethics. A cursory glance of human progress indicates that we are driven by the values which are imbued on us. Noble values cultivate good actions, which are necessarily ethical. It encourages the pursuit of a more ethical outcome, while at the same time tries to be accommodative and inclusive.

  114. 1) D
    2) D
    3) VE
    4) D
    5) U
    Captain america and superman both have their own code of ethics. Captain with Deontology will stand out. Because it is talking about present. We can’t just kill people that are in present to save others or future generations. We have to make such choices that will be do good for all instead of extreme decisions as it will hamper the natural process of life. superman is to much idealisitc. While thanos idea to wipe out half the universe is not a balanced solution.

  115. Task 1st
    1- D
    2- U
    3- U
    4- VE
    5- VE

    Task 2nd
    Ethics is the set of rules which help us to reach to the final decision where there are dilemmas while taking decision. And here applying 3 ethical theories to different situations seems to be correct at their places.
    Here we have taken example of 3 different superheroes with different ehical idealogies. Although they all have their positives and negatives, so none of the ethical theory can be said to be absolutely correct. But taking my personal view that which one is more ethical, I’ll be on the side of super hero. The simple reason is that he follows virtue ethics which is the building up of a good personality without doing harm to others

  116. Assignment 1: 1) Deontology
    2) Utilitarianism
    3) Utilitarianism
    4) Deontology
    5) Virtue ethics

    Assignment 2: “There are more things to alarm us than to harm us, and we suffer more often in apprehension than reality.” – Seneca

    Any school of thought has its own perspective leading to different pros and cons, same is applicable with ethical theories. There is not any single theory that can lead to vanishing the concept of Ethical dilemma. Deontology is related to duty, Utilitarianism codes good for the greatest number and Virtue Ethics related to the concept of good character traits. Although these theories have situational implementation and among these theories, I am most appealed by Virtue Ethics, for the following reasons:
    a) It reflects one’s character which doesn’t allow one to do anything bad or wrong.
    b) Secondly virtue ethics is one that will allow one to follow the other two theories.

  117. Virtue ethics
    Utilitarianism
    Utilitarianism
    Deontology
    Virtue ethics

    All ethical theory mentioned have their pros and cons for example in deontology the duty based system, and person stick to their duty, don’t care about the consequences like that in utilitarianism is about greatest good for greatest number.
    And virtue ethics talks about good character traits to be a good person.
    I personally think that virtue ehtics is a good balanced theory where individual with a good character, and whatever the decision, he/she takes are for the better good of peoples.
    However, every theory have their own value and it also depends on the situation, with a person deal with according to situation the theory varies.

  118. Task I
    1. D
    2.U
    3.V
    4.U
    5.V

    Task II
    According to me, the best among the three is virtue ethics. Because it mainly emphasizes the cultivation of good character such as compassion, self-control, courage, wisdom, etc, which enable one to be a good person. These characters are the key features that make human beings different from other animals. Also, these qualities will help one in the journey from human being to being humane.

  119. Task 1:
    1. Deontology
    2. Utilitarianism
    3. utilitarianism
    3. Deontology
    4. Virtue Ethics

    Task 2
    Each ethical theory has its importance and it affects our lives differently. If given an option to choose between them, I would select Virtue Ethics. As its definition states that it emphasizes on flourishing the good character traits in an individual. It can help us in avoiding lots of problems or complex circumstances in our lives and can serve as a medium for the greater good.
    The front-line workers have proved to be the best example of this. They have been serving the country selflessly throughout this pandemic, sacrificing their comfort, health and time to save the lives of others. It might be considered as an act based on their duty but it also talks about their characteristics, their compassion, kindness and empathy. Their contribution has highlighted the value of virtue ethics.
    Emphasizing on the integrity and character of an individual will help us build a society that is kinder, much more compassionate and caring, where collective good is considered to be as important as an individual’s good.

  120. 1-D
    2-U
    3-U and VE
    4- D and VE
    5- D and VE

    T2- Ethical means belief of a person what is right or wrong in his/her way.So,by this we can’t completely say someone ethical or unethical because something ethical for me might be ethical for other.We might be think same or not.Hence, we can say that these all superheroes were ethical in their own way.
    As we had seen ,captain America following “deontology”system . Deontology is a duty-based system of ethics which holds that some acts are intrinsically right or wrong regardless of their consequences and that moral agents have duties to follow moral commands or rules regardless of their consequences. He was right in his own way, because he was following his duty rather than thinking about the consequences. But if we talk about thanos ,he was following “utilitarianism” system.Utilitarianism simply stated believes in greatest good for the greatest number.
    He thought that , we have finite resources for half of the population.If we shall kill half of the population then left half population can live peacefully with finite resources.
    Superman was following “virtue ethics” system.Virtue ethics emphasize the cultivation of good character traits that enable one to be a good person.He was trying to make joker a good person by giving him multiple chances .
    So, we can say that they were independent to each other. They were following their own ethics. So, it’s hard to say that which superhero was more ethical .But utilitarianism theory of thanos was somewhere lagging behind other theories in ethical prospective, because killing the people was not a solution, if lacks of resources for whole population were the problem then there could be other solution for this problem. But it was right in his way.
    Ethical thinking varies from situation to situation. It might be same or be different for us.
    I’m agree with all the deontology, utilitarianism and virtue ethics.It depends on the need of the situation which we follow.

  121. Task 1st
    1- D
    2- U
    3- U
    4- VE
    5- VE

    Task 2nd
    Ethics is the set of rules which help us to reach to the final decision where there are dilemmas while taking decision. And here applying 3 ethical theories to different situations seems to be correct at their places.
    Here we have taken example of 3 different superheroes with different ehical idealogies. Although they all have their positives and negatives, so none of the ethical theory can be said to be absolutely correct. But taking my personal view that which one is more ethical, I’ll be on the side of super hero. The simple reason is that he follows virtue ethics which is the building up of a good personality without doing harm to others

  122. 1-DEONTOLOGY
    2-VIRTUE ETHICS
    3-UTILITARIAN
    4-DEONTOLOGY AND VIRTUE ETHICS
    5-DEONTOLOGY AND VIRTUE ETHICS
    In my opinion, not anyone’s theory is the best as each theory has its pros and cons it’s always the combination of all theories that work best in a situation. however, it may vary from person to person and situation to situation which will also depend on personal moral ethics and power in one’s hands. Though the utilitarian theory is somewhat unethical for me because it cannot be justified morally just because to achieve the good things or goals we can’t ignore the process of achieving the same, harming the moral ethics of the universe, minority, animals, etc but sometimes it can be good also in the situation where the moral ethics of someone is not deprived in the process of achieving the goals. so if I have to choose the best out of three then it will be the combination of deontology and moral ethics for me.

  123. Task1:
    1) D
    2) U
    3) U
    4) D
    5) VE

    Task2:

    The three ethical conducts utilitarianism,deontology and virtue ethics are different with each other and can be used in respective situations. utilitarianism concerned with the greatest number for greatest goods is a sort of extremism and deontology concerned with the duty no matter what is the consequences of actions it is too ethical. Virtue ethics talks about cultivating a good character which seems to be a set of ethical values. The most ethical depends on the situation or Virtual ethics is useful to find a balanced solution whic is most ethical.

  124. 1) D
    2) U
    3) U
    4) D
    5) VE

    Virtue ethics emphasize the cultivation of good character traits that enable one to be a good person- wisdom, courage, self-control, and compassion are some examples of such traits. Virtue ethics enables individual to understand the core values which drive Human with his/her wisdom,which helps state to develop society with wisdom and courage.

    Where as Deontology is a duty-based system of ethics which holds that some acts are intrinsically right or wrong regardless of their consequences and that moral agents have duties to follow moral commands or rules regardless of their consequences.But when we look it in a big picture we can observe that right and wrong are always Change according to the situations and practically of life, One which is right in past may turn as fatal wrong in future such as ‘Sati Sahagamana”. So, what’s right and what’s wrong are which determines morals of individual and that which ultimately are background for his/her moral duties. “non-consequentialism is non accountability” where as there are no one to address the consequences for there decisions in deontology.

    Utilitarianism simply stated believes in greatest good for the greatest number.Here utilitarianism core depends on consensus of masses, regardless of individual choice. Which is flaw in utilitarianism to serve justice to individual. Also there are high chances where majority turns wrong.

  125. 1)Deontology
    2)Utilitarianism
    3)Utilitarianism
    4)Deontology
    5)Virtue Ethics

    Although all ethical theories i.e Deontology, Utilitarianism and Virtue ethics has number of advantages and disadvantages, But, the ethical theory of Virtue ethics appeals me the most. Because, developing good character traits enables us to live life of progressive flourishment. If all people in society develop these personal traits, lot of ethical issues will not arise at the first place. For e.g if Thanos believed in Virtue ethics rather than Utilitarianism, it was very unlikely that he would have chosen such path. Also, to have a wisdom to foresee consequences (as in Utilitarianism) or to have the courage to stick to duty (as in Deontology), we need Virtue ethics. So, I would like to be Superman.

  126. 1) D
    U
    U
    Ve
    Ve
    2)
    There are 3main theories in ethics. Deontology which states that some acts are intrinsically Right or wrong and one is duty-bound to act ethically regardless of the consequences.
    on the other hand utilitarianism believes in greatest good for greatest number regardless of the means.
    Virtue ethics is the the 3rd theory that focus on the cultivation of good character traits that enable the person to be a good person.
    All the three theories appears to be correct when viewed from their perspective. However if we have to choose one of them we should adopt the virtue ethics theory as it focus on developing the basics of a good, ethical and humane human being. If a person is intrinsically of a good character he/she will act according to the best possible options considering the given situation.

  127. Answer to first part
    1. D
    2. U
    3. U
    4. U and D
    5. D and VE

    Answer to the second part

    Superheroes have superpowers and based on their belief system, they have used it according to their moral value alignment. Ethics depends on situation at hand at any given point

    I believe Deontology at one hand is extreme, where the moral rules of the individual rule the decision without any rational thinking, as in case of Caption America. Another example could be Karan where he support Kauravas even though they are doing wrong. Utilitarian on the other hand is another extreme ethics where end result are important than the intent, as in case of Thanos. Another example could be Hitler where he acts against Jews to betterment of Germans.
    Virtue Ethics is guided by unique moral views ,which is leads to the betterment of humanity. It is a mid ground
    based on rational thinking and good judgement, like in case of Superman. Another example could be Lord Shiva drinking Halala Poison for the betterment of the World.

    To conclude, extreme of any belief is wrong and one should be able to properly access the situation and Do the right thing as in the case of Virtue ethics.

  128. 1. U – DUTY BOUND
    2. D – partition is wrong , but for the good had to do it
    3. D – supporting british is foolish , but for the good it had to be done
    4. VE – trying to be good
    5. U – duty bound

  129. 1. U
    2. U
    3. D
    4. U
    5. VE

    Task 2:
    On considering the three ethics Deontology which is completely a duty based system, Utilitarianism which focuses on greatest good for the greatest number and Virtue Ethics is the cultivation of good character traits i.e., in simple terms looks in to the moral and character rather than the ethics, all ethics are necessary and equally important. To choose between these three ethics are completely based on the problem and the situation. Each one will have different ethics because it is depend on a persons thinking and approach to the problem. But it does not mean that taking a particular ethics will solve a problem, it will have negative side if it has positive side. Therefore, in my opinion all the three ethics are equally important and should be used relevantly by analyzing the situation which helps in the betterment of the entire society.

  130. Task 1:
    1. D
    2.U
    3.U
    4.VE
    5.D

    Task2:
    If I have to choose between these three ethics theories i.e. Deontology, Utilitarianism and Virtue ethics l will go for a good combination of all as we know real superpower is equivalent to balance of judgment.
    Deontology is a duty based system of ethics. Utilitarianism simply states the believes in greatest good for greatest number. Virtue ethics emphasizes the cultivation of good character traits that enable one to be a good person. We know all what is right and what is wrong varies from situation to situation and person to person. One should try to help and protect maximum number of people in the best moral way with the help of all the virtues one follows. Hence in my point of view a well and healthy mixture of all ethics theories can bring the best moral,ethical, utilitarian decision in every situation

  131. 1. D
    2. U
    3. U
    4. VE
    5. VE
    In the cases of Ethical dilemmas, many solutions feels appropriate but choosing the correct which does not effect anything becomes the challenge because ethically and constitutionally right to equality, right to live is not bounded by only few. Sometimes it is difficult to stand with Captain America at all times, I believe in Deontology. It lets us see and think all possible ways before coming up with a solution which is consequential. Also Virtue Ethics is equally important to have an ethical vision because when we wish our lives to be peaceful, then we should also vision other lives in society also. One cannot disturb anyone’s rights and wishes. This kind of quality should be developed in humans to make a better living.

  132. Task 1
    Case 1- Utilitarianism
    Case 2- Deontology
    Case 3- Utilitarianism
    Case 4- Virtual ethics
    Case 5- Virtual ethics

    Task 2-
    By the term ‘ethical’ we understand about the moral actions that one takes while considering its consequences which will fetch greater results but if it’s consequences are not harmful to anyone, it will be the best.
    As per the lesson, all the mentioned superheroes are ethical in their own way but Superman is most ethical of them because the Captain America believes in deontologist theory, where he does not see the consequences of his morality that he wants to save one life but does not have the insight to it’s consequence where a large number of people are going to be killed.
    Thanos believes in utilitarianism theory where he is contemplating about the well being of the earth in long run but he wants to do it at the cost of others’ life, where he wants to cause genocide in order to protect life on earth.
    Whereas, Superman possesses the Virtue ethics where he has the quality of wisdom, courage, self control and compassion as he is truly serving for the world without being carried away by his emotions. He is looking at the consequences of the moral decision taken using his wisdom, working selflessly with courage towards the civilians. So as Superman believes in Virtue ethics, he has all the character traits that make him most ethical. That is why, Superman is the most ethical Superhero here.

  133. 1. Deontology
    2. Utilitarianism
    3. Virtual ethics and Utilitarianism
    4. Utilitarianism
    5. Virtual ethics

    Every coin has two sides. Similarly all three ethical theories are used in different situations depending on their nature and have their own pros and cons. According to me the best approach is Virtual Ethics in which our main aim is to imbibe virtues and become a moral person. We do what is morally right and take moral decisions causing no harm to others. The willingness to help others with kindness, without thinking about the consequences makes this ethical theory more acceptable in real life. It automatically spreads happiness and well-being and paves the way for humanity. Although it’s not easy to follow this path as Superman did and be virtuous as sometimes we are carried away by thinking about the greatest good or not considering consequences. Having a moral character and taking decisions based on our virtues can be of great help in real world.

  134. task 1
    1. virtue ethics
    2. utilitarianism
    3. virtue ethics
    4. utilitarianism
    5. virtue ethics
    task 2
    ethics is something that cannot be taught and it usually depends upon our values and principles. There is no fixed ethical approach towards a particular situation so for problem solving according to me the best suited ethical approach may be the virtue ethics that demands a balance approach towards a particular situation by using our own virtue
    , it is non – consequential in nature.

  135. Task 1:
    1. virtue ethics
    2. utilitarianism
    3. utilitarianism
    4. deontology
    5. virtue ethics

    Task 2:
    The various Ethical dilemmas as mentioned in the lesson such as Deontology, Utilitarianism, and Virtue ethics are correct in some of their own perspectives under certain circumstances. If one is to be selected among the three, I would like to go with virtue ethics as it emphasizes the cultivation of good character traits which I believe is the basic and foremost necessary trait to adapt, lack of which is the inability for other ethical dilemmas to even strike on the mind. A person with virtue ethics has the enormous potential to distinguish between good and evil happenings and will accordingly make suitable decisions as per the given circumstances.

  136. Task 1
    1-U
    2-U
    3-U
    4-D
    5-VE

    Task 2
    Ethics is all about how we relate/interact with others.Our values , principles  decides  the actions we take. Utilitarianism (Thanos), denotology ( captain america) and Virtue Ethics (Super man)  out of three ethical theories,  applications  and consequences  may  vary from people to people,  situation to situation. I would  agree with the Virtue Ethics  theory.Virtue Ethics  serves a goal of a good character  that obey moral values and conclude a better approch. VE  concern with  characteristics  such as  Honesty,  courage,  resopnsible, integrity. only  If the person  has a good character  He/She will be faithfull to  his/her duties, responsible  for the decisions and consequences. on the other side  if the person  has bad moral values, then thats going  to   give worst consequences  and results.  we can not conclude to apply particular theory in every situation. none of the three can give always  best results.Rather than particular one theory , we can have the approch for optimum performance depending  upon the situations

  137. 1. D
    2. U
    3. U
    4. U
    5. VE

    Ethics is about being right or wrong,doing good or bad but what is right from one end doesn’t means it’s wrong from the other. Ethics is more about welfare of the people and to achieve it there can be many ways which one cannot say is right or wrong. Their are different theories to achieve it and all are right in their own way. It’s on us what we choose and how we achieve welfare for all.

    Deontology-. Approach taken by captain America in avengers: infinity war movie
    He refused to derail from track of values.
    For sake of millions allowing the death of 1 innocent is not the moral way to achieve.
    The Indian judiciary also says “even if 10 culprits escapes 1 innocent should not be punished”

    Utilitarianism- Thanos took this approach for the welfare of many. The government of India is a welfare state which works for the welfare of many and have a equity approach in designing of various schemes in India. Various schemes and financial supports are given for weaker sections of society and tax burdern comes on other sections.

    Virtue Ethics- it is the ideal and compassion for of ethics with lots of values for the the needy which a superhero with powers must have for the benifit of all. The main aim in this is the welfare and development of most of the people even if going wrong way helps.

    According to me all the above theory have their own pros and cons which can be justified from one end and can be criticised from the other. It all matters is on what we more focuses upon and how we see the results.
    Non of the following is the ideal way
    To achieve 1 we will lose other
    The preamble of Indian constitution talks about “we the people of India…”
    So for the welfare of we the people utilitarian theory will work if we need to sacrifice other country’s men, But if we say “vasudev kutubakam” then deontology will be best,and when we talk about mankind and being humane then Virtue Ethics works

  138. 1.D
    2.U
    3.U
    4.D
    5.VE

    Ethical dilemmas cannot be solved while thinking from a single ethical philosophy because none is absolute, every situation needs to be viewed from a broad perspective using all philosophies. So i personally do not agree absolutely with a single philosophy, but yeah virtual ethics is what I think should be imbibed by all as it will not lead to any bad consequences but also it will alone not lead to a optimized solution.
    Deontology with its duty based ethics and morals which may be the best but it will hold the person from doing what needs to be done which the situation may demand. Utilitarianism with its philosophy of greater good for the greatest number regardless the consequences can be disastrous. Therefore virtual ethics combined with Deontology or Utilitarianism depending upon the situation may lead to a optimized solution.
    (Captain America alone could not fix the Thanos situation, Thanos plan was evil but there was a reason behind his intent which required different solution )

  139. D
    U
    VE
    U
    VE

    Utilitarianism
    The greatest good for greatest members is the backbone philosophy of utilitarianism.it justifies ends ,no matter whatever the means maybe.
    For eg : Subhash Chandra Bose during the Indian freedom movement chosen the revolutionary path to overthrow the British government. this method justifies in killing and sacrificing one’s lives for the sake of the maximum people in the country
    “Give me the blood I will give you freedom “

    Deontology
    This emphasises on the means to achieve ends.that is means have to be justified for the ends.
    For eg: Mahatma Gandhi chosen non violent path to attain freedom.
    While this method didn’t bring immediate results it curtailed the armed revolution to some extent.here means were justified even though the result was late.

    Virtue ethics
    It emphasises on developing ones own character rather than defining what is rules or consequences .Happiness is the ultimate goal of the life.To achieve happiness we need to develop virtuous character

    For eg :testifying against the traitors /terrorists even when there is imminent danger.Malala yousafzai fought for girls education even when she is aware of the danger from taliban is an act courage , fortitude for girls right.

    While all the three has its own strengths and weaknesses, I will agree with virtue ethics, because it helps in developing virtues while sidelining vices . It may not justify greatest good nor the means . It helps in personality development, intellectual ability which helps person in reducing the ethical dilemma situations. It also has its own loophole i.e, being ideal all the time is not possible because humans are sentinel beings.while deontology justifies the means it may end up being tedious task. So a balance has to be made between all the three theories according to situations.

  140. 1. Deontology
    2. Utilitarianism
    3.Virtue ethics
    4.Utilitarianism
    5.Deontology

    All of three superheroes have some ethical value but i found most ethical superman because virtue is an excellent trait of character. It emphasize more on virtues or moral character rather than on duties or rules and consequences of actions .Suppose ,someone in need should be helped. A utilitarian focus on consequences of doing so will maximize well being , a deontologist focus on that he will acting in accordance with a moral rules and a virtue ethicist focus on the fact that helping the person would be charitable or benevolent. Lastly an charitable work lead an good consequences.

  141. Task 1:
    1. U
    2. U
    3. VE
    4. VE, D
    5. VE

    Task 2:
    All three superheroes’ ethical views are good in their point of view. it differs from person to person depending upon the situation they were brought up in and the situation they faced while growing up. No one is right and no one is wrong. Deontology focuses more on the present being good without thinking of the future. Utilitarianism focuses on thinking about the future without thinking of the present. Virtue Ethics takes the balanced approach by being good and by doing goods deeds ultimately the result will be good and if the results are not good then it’s not because of you but due to some other factor.

  142. 1. U
    2. D
    3. VE
    4. D
    5. U

    I agree with the Deontological theory because:
    1. it sets the ground rules for ethics, thus ensuring certainty e.g. Gandhiji didn’t tolerate violence at all
    2. it reduces scope for ethics manipulation.
    3. it ensures the means are as good as the ends
    4. it allows no scope for departure from moral code of conduct
    5. clearly demarcates the ethical from the unethical. E.g. wars are clearly unethical because they involve killing
    6. It treats minority and majority equally
    Issues with utilitarianism
    1. it will lead to majoritarianism and rule of mob
    2. It is not clear whose maximum pleasure is sought for.
    3. men will think only about their welfare and not of environment and other beings.
    For example: industrial revolution considered progressive for mankind has led to environmental pollution and harm to biodiversity.
    Issues with virtue ethics:
    1. Virtues vary with time, place and agents, so no certainty.
    2. virtues are vague, they may be interpreted differently by different people.
    3. Clash of virtues may lead to anarchy.
    For example: Some consider charity as good virtue, other think it is harmful as in the case of Universal basic Income.

  143. Task 1
    1. D
    2. VE
    3. VE
    4. U
    5. D

    Task 2
    Ethics, a design structured for making a proper decision with respect to the situation. It is the situation and time that brings out a better ethical theory among Utilitarianism, Deontology and Virtue Ethics and/or their combinations. Fixing an ethical theory as a best option may lead decide to only on that way first and it might take a wrong turn.
    Virtue ethics brings out solution for present and Utilitarianism forms a structure futuristic but in a partial manner. Deontology is quite far better than the other two, which is structured in way that it shall not harm any innocents accounting present as well as future. Ethical theory for making decisions shall be based on the situation in a way that it brings betterment for all atmost.

  144. Task 1
    1.Deontology
    2. Utilitarianism
    3.virtue Ethics
    4.utilitarianism
    5. Deontology
    Task 2
    As seen throughout the above article, many of our greatest philosophers are not able to one unified theory to overcome the situation. The above 3 ethical theories have to be used according to the situation. Every theory is correct regarding to the situation.
    Among 3 theories , I personally agree with the VIRTUE ETHICS because to handle the situation where the ethical decision have to implement one must need the traits like wisdom ,courage, self control, honesty etc .,
    Taking the situation of a person implementing Deontology theory , he /she msut have to be Honest towards his duty and courage to follow rules which is obviously the outcome of virtye ethics theory …
    Taking the situation of a person implementing Utilitarianism theory, hhe /she must go through self control for destroying an innocent life to save the lives of greater people which again come from the virtu ethics.
    Hence to handle the situation of ethical decision one have to cultivate the good character traits to face and stood for the situation .

  145. Task-1;
    1-VE
    2-U
    3-VE
    4-D
    5-D

    Task-2;

    Thanos

    Yes, it is very difficult for one to choose which theory is most ethical because all are valuable and vary from person to person and situation to situation.
    So we can’t choose only one theory, but if somehow arranging those in ethical situation Utilitarianism will be the most ethical situation. Because in the end it will give greatest good for greatest number and also utilitarianism is a consequentialism situation which gives a positive results.

    Ex; Dharmapada Vs 1200 craftsman
    Dharmapada was son of great architect Bishu Maharana, dharmapada completed the construction of the sun temple at Konark,Odisha and save 1200 craftsman’s life from king. (Positive results)

    We already seen the situation by utilizing “Utilitarianism ” ethical situation.

  146. Task 1 :-
    1.D
    2.U
    3.U
    4.VE
    5.VE
    TASK 2
    Discussing about captain. America, Thanos, superman a little bit difficult, they 3 people had different ethics deabats, views, thought but the three are hero in there on situation.
    Captain America who always follow his duty and he always taking a Denolological stand of his no innocent shoud be sacrifice. So he had denotology ethics.
    Thans had follow utiliarianism philosophy was made popular by Jeremy bentham and John stuart min.. Thanos plans to randomly kill half of all living beings from the universe so that remaining half can flourish on the limited resources of the universe.
    The superman who had the courage, self-control and compassion so he was follow the virtual ethics.

  147. task 1
    1. deontology 2 utilitarianism 3 virtue ethics 4. utilitarianism 5. virtue ethics
    task 2
    I AGREE WITH THE THEORY OF VIRTUE ETHICS BECAUSE IT ENCOMPASSES THAT WE ALL INDIVIDUALS SHOULD ADHERE TO CERTAIN RULES AND REGULATIONS WHICH ARE VIRTUOS IN CHARACTER AND GIVE HAPPINESS . JUST AS IN THE ABOVE EXAMPLES GIVING EVIDENCE AGAINST THE BEST FRIEND WHO HAS MADE SEXIST REMARK AGAINST THE LADY. MAY BE END RESULT WOULD BE END OF FRIENDSHIP. BUT THE CHARACTER AND THE VIRTUOS HAS LED US TO FIGHT AGAINST THE ODDS.

    • Task 1 :-
      1 – D
      2 – U
      3 – U
      4 – D
      5 – VE

      Task 2 :-
      The virtue ethics theory is the most ethical one according to me since it emphasizes more on developing good traits in a person rather than defining anything good or bad. Deontology defines certain things as good and others as bad without bothering about the consequences while utilitarism is mainly consequence based which may be ethical sometimes.
      If we raise good qualities in a person then the person will be more aware and more ethical in his approach. Decisions which will not harm others and also beneficial for greatest number.

  148. 1. Deontology
    2.Utilitarianism
    3.Virtue Ethics
    4. Deontology
    5.Virtue/Deontology
    As per above discussion we ill face ethical dilemma in various situations,but while making decision we should be more conscious on our action for example we take superman.we all think superman work alongside a moral absolute and does everything right all the time and that’s pretty much his character but in reality that isn’t quite the case.He isn’t perfect and he isn’t sure what to do.He has right intention but doesn’t always make the right action and decision however he learn from his mistake.This reflects the way of making humanity.Basically we dont always know the outcome of our actions but most of the time we do have right moral intent.There is no definitive right way of doing something.As like superman other two heroes also have specific character so we couldn’t avoid any one of these heroes. So these three super character helps us to make super good decision on right way.It depends on the choice we make.

  149. TASK 1 :
    1. U
    2. U and D
    3. VE
    4. D
    5. VE

    TASK 2 :
    Each of the superhero follow one of the ethical theories or they have their own code of ethics. I believe Capt. America among three superheroes is the most ethical because his character reminds to fight for yourself.
    Captain America goes with the ethical theory of deontology because Steve Rogers set a value of his willingness to sacrifice himself for saving others. While self sacrifice is a good thing, and its at the core of character in many ways.
    He believes in taking responsibility and his ability to make change.
    Its too apprises that great innovators often fail sometimes. Leaders will go through pain and aren’t adored by anyone.
    It clears out the thing that do what’s the right, no matter who disagrees with you.
    *UNITED WE STAND. DIVIDED WE FALL. Its applies in the real life too. When there is division of over differences of race, over difference of genders, over difference of opinions-NO ONE CAN STAND. We can only stand when we can stand together. We’re all on the same team and we need to start acting like it. We must always strive for unity. ” COMPROMISE WHERE YOU CAN, WHERE YOU CANT, DON’T “

  150. 1-D 2-U 3-VE 4-U 5-D

    In the context of saving the masses all were standing at the position which are correct in different views. But what Capt. America argued was an extraordinary and ethical mean. In the basic sense of humanity killing one innocent to save thousand isn’t correct or justified as the moment we kill the one we lost our humanity. As per the Deontology principal one should be morally abide on the ethical way without considering the upcoming consequence because what is coming can’t be predicted totally but what is predicted is that the moment you lost the humanity you already lost the war. Moral ways are design for the betterment of person as well as the society. They consider every living being a part of society and no matter what problem comes we all stay together and fight together.

  151. TASK 1
    1) Deontology
    2) Utilitarianism
    3) Utilitarianism
    4) Utilitarianism and Deontology
    5) Virtue ethics

    TASK 2

    It is very difficult for one to choose which theory is more ethical because all theories has it own reasons to be best .
    But according to me Utilitarianism is more ethical one as it concentrates on Greatest good for greatest number, which allways has a positive consequences of good to many. A small sacrifice from a single person can be great good for many.

    And this theory is part of Consequential as said end allways justify means it means if end result is good for maximum number then means does not matter.
    This theory concentrates on maximum happiness which is very much needed in present situation of society and many people satisfaction is counted here.

  152. 1.virtue ethics
    2.deontology
    3.utilitarianism
    4.deontology
    5.virtue ethics

    First of all ,each of three characters have taught us different ethical concepts and it is an evidence that no one is born same and everyone revolve around their own set of ethical principles in their life.I think i like superhero superman always when it comes to potray the ethical values .
    captain america showed us the value of Deontology by just following the rules he had been taught as ” no innocent lives should be dead”.Though his sacrifice was acclaimed by many and it is indeed a great thing but he did not bother about the consequences.His life would have become no value if everything had turned out negatively. Thanos expressed the quality of utilitarianism by focusing on the welfare of only the half of the people at the cost of the lives of other half. We often argue about right to life on many social issues generally.Even considering his point of view to be Consequentialist in nature it does not seems to completely positive aspect ethically.It may be seen there is lack of human ethical values to some extent as well. we have the superhero Superman who is known for his virtue ethical values which he had shown throughout his appearance.Though virtual ethics of him seems to be non Consequentialist in nature we cannot also deny the fact that having virtue ethical values not only benefit the person but also the public on a larger scale too.There seems his actions have resulted in goodness and happiness of the people.These ethical values being had on strong hold(virtue ethics) seems to be so normal are very difficult to be followed throughout a person’s life.I beleive that each person on coming together form a society of people.Hence it is responsibilty of each individual to build a happy and prosperous society for the benefit of all at present and also for the future generations.When a benefit is given by a man then a problem is also brought by man only.The root cause of these problems lies in the individual’s ethical values firstly.Though virtue of ethics seems to be non Consequentialist in nature we can deny that it is a part or root for a good consequence and it is indispensable to avoid them.

  153. Task-1
    ——–
    1) U & D
    2) U
    3) U
    4) U & VE
    5) VE

    Task-2
    ——–
    Ethics is a set of rules which guide person behavior and it is different to one person to another person. There are many situations where it is difficult for a person to decide what is right and what is wrong. In a current circumstances of Covid-19 there it becomes difficult for the government to decide on a lockdown but government choose which is utilitarianism and decide to save more lives and gave a lockdown. We can also take an example of superheroes. Captain America is deontology and also follow the virtue ethics by saying “We don’t trade lives”. Thanos follows utilitarianism because he only think for greatest good which draws him to kill half of humanity. As superman says, “Dreams save us. Dreams lift us up and transform us. And on my soul I swear until my dream of a world where dignity, honor, and justice becomes the reality we all share, I’ll never stop fighting. Ever!” He fought for the better world where dignity, honor and justice becomes the reality. This is shows the superman virtue ethic. These three were right their own place. But Captain America was make a balance between his duty and emotions for people my personal views goes with him.

  154. (1) D (2) D (3) V.E (4) D (5) U
    Cap, Thanos, and superman both have their own code of ethics. Captain with Deontology will stand out. Because it is talking about present. We can’t just kill people that are in present to save others or future generations. We have to make such choices that will be do good for all instead of extreme decisions as it will hamper the natural process of life. During pandemic, govt. Is exempting taxes on medical equipments because more people can have those equipments and more life can be saved. Well, we can’t save all the live and we would definitely missed some, but inclusive growth that all the major govt. around the world talks about is the key. Too much idealistic like superman would take us away from the practical approach.

  155. Task 1:
    1. Deontology (Means are as important as ends)
    2. Utilitarianism (Greatest good of the people due to the polarised situation in the country)
    3. Deontology (Means are as important as ends)
    4. Utilitarianism (Greatest good of the greatest number)
    5. Virtue Ethics (Develop virtues at the cost of losing friends)

    Task 2:
    Each of the superheroes follow one of the ethical theories. Thanos believes in utilitarianism, as wiping out half of the universe would make it more sustainable, which is heading towards extinction due to depletion of resources. Captain America believes in deontology because sacrificing Vision or any individual, to save the universe is inherently wrong, irrespective of the intended outcomes. Then, Superman believes in virtue ethics, for whom cultivating virtues, in order to become a good person is the ulterior motive of human life.
    Utilitarianism suffers from the problem of ethical myopia because it intends to achieve its ultimate objective at any cost. It overlooks many human values cherished by the Virtue Ethics. Similarly, deontology also suffers from its categorization of acts as inherently good or bad. In case of real life moral dilemmas, creating water tight compartments of good and bad actions is hardly possible. Virtue ethics encourages us to learn and practice virtues in our quest for Eudemonia. However, we cannot always be hard-bound to follow the principle of virtues at all times. In this case, we can sacrifice Vision to save the half of the universe, and find alternate ways of creating a sustainable place than rigidly sticking to deontology.
    Thus, we must as far as possible try to cultivate virtues and honour our duty. However, because of the inherent complexities of the ethical dilemmas, we can afford to bend the rules in the interests of the majority.

  156. Task 1
    1. Deontology
    2. Utilitrianism
    3. Utilitrianism & Virtue ethics
    4. Virtue ethics
    5. Virtue ethics

    Task 2
    All above theories solved problem regarding problem related to ethical dilemmas but none of them can not bring the right solution of the problem but a best solution regarding the response to situation. Because in ethical dilemmas not decision is right or wrong so not a theory is good or wrong . But for me virtue ethics is best because it based on human value traits and on doing moral duties. But always remember which theory is good or bad depends on the kind of situation in which we are. So conclusion is every super hero is right according to his thinking because only they knew the situation or kind of response it required.

  157. 1. Deontology
    2. Utilitarianism
    3. Utilitarianism
    4. Deontology
    5. Virtue Ethics
    All the three superheroes have their own merits. But, I believe that a person should have both Virtue Ethics and Deontology to lead a kind and humane life. Being utilitarian is not necessarily wrong, but the consequences of utilitarian action may be adverse for a lot of people even if it is for a greater good. Virtue Ethics is a must as it involves the cultivation of humane values in each individual, these individuals will make the society a more moral and ethical society. But having only virtue ethics may not help us to solve moral dilemmas as one man’s virtue may be another man’s vice. We should not have too much of deontological ethics, too as in some cases the nature of the act maybe wrong but the reason and the end may be right. For example, when defence official kills a terrorist, the action of killing someone is wrong but action of the official is completely justified as if that one man had been allowed to live then numerous people may have lost their lives. So, in such an instance Deontology cannot be applied as it is too rigid in its principles. So, in conclusion, I don’t think any one of them is the best, as they were all products of various experiences. Thanos is considerably more worse and the reason for that is because he just thought about the dilemma in an utilitarian way, he didn’t allow the other school of thoughts before making his decisions, and so his decisions had more pros than cons. Both Captain America and Superman have their share of wrong decisions, too. On the whole, when we are faced with a moral dilemma, we should think it through using all these three ethical school of thoughts as it will help us look at the dilemma from all points of view, not just the view that suits us. Only when a dilemma is completely understood can an ethical and morally sound decision be taken. So all three have their pros and cons but regardless they are all important in their own way.

  158. Task 1:-
    1. Virtue Ethics
    2. Utilitarianism
    3. Virtue Ethics
    4. Deontology
    5. Deontology.
    Task 2:-
    It is hard to determine who is most ethical here because, this is an dilemma, where everybody is correct according to their own situation and moral extent. May be Thanos stand moral in their ethical understanding to kill half of population for betterment of other but for others it seem Morally wrong. There are similar situation for Capt. America and Superman also.

  159. 1. Deontology
    2. Utilitarianism
    3. Utilitarianism
    4. Virtue Ethics
    5. Deontology+ Virtue Ethics

    In my opinion Virtue Ethics would be a better choice than others as this theory has both traits of Deontology and utilitarianism. Following one specific theory might not give the best result always. As in some situations the greater good or we can say the consequences should weigh more than the present situation. But that can’t be the case always as it would be wrong for an innocent person to suffer. The approach we choose will depend on the situation and the value of stakes costing.
    In situation that are not of much importance will allow us to follow utilitarianism approach. But developing virtue ethics is important as everyone’s life is equally precious and they shouldn’t be deprived of them. We should have the courage to walk on the right path and be a better person and also develop compassion towards other.

  160. 1- D/ U/ VE
    ****U with an aspect of rejecting ‘ Ends justify the means, seeing through the causation of violence at UP that British Police open fired at the large group of protesters parting in Non-CP movement, due to which mob flashed many consequentialist.
    ****D Gandhi ji suspended the movement because of their intrinsic right of principle Ahimsa, as Non-Consequentialist.
    ****VE He personified himself as the highest man of virtues and character imaging of coercion peaceful movement.

    2- D / U
    **** INC calling Britishers to Quit India and on the contrary Muslim league demanding Britishers Divide & Quit, in reaction draw the line of dichotomy of intrinsic rights without much concerning about the prior co-existent beliefs and virtue ethics of diverse yet unified nationalist union.
    ****U Causation of communal riots because of Communist Party raising voices against the party in light INC by providing the alms and weaponry as a charity to stabilize the economics of poor people, the same nationalist emerged the indifferent communal riots and seemingly ends always justify the means, lead to maximum good for the greatest number of people, good for whom?
    3- D / U / VE
    **** Morality always pave the path towards moral conduct and good fortune for Mortals, supporting a peaceful hand towards a repressive and oppressive regime so to evade humanitarian crisis, by simply mastering the art of illustrating and cultivation of Good character, so to be conceived as a man of Integrity, yet in a coercion peaceful way attributed to individual identity.
    4- D / U
    **** We don’t trade live’s, we protect live’s by providing every possible physical median medical fostering operation directly.
    5- VE / U / D
    **** if you are a good person you will do good things, and you might be untoward to other’s and then you be qualified by irony and fate.

    *****************200 words***************
    Connected with the beliefs of right and wrong about foreseeable existential crisis to dysfunctional vying of humanitarian leadership, where power may have flaws with nature evading such visual graphical imagination of power proactively responsible for its own necessary contingent of how the responsible use of power looks like ? And must not looks in the nature of quick ending. Rather a man of superannuation of co-existential good philosophical character and wisdom posting portrayal of virtuous ethics and in Philosophy, justifying the existence of human race of substance with all potential and self mastery attained the power for all good reasons and made the existence absolutely sustainable by completely absolutely ideally centers conventional way of human flourishment to the well being brought about by integrity. That is very much handful by rejecting the idea of trump individual privacy through just over unjust, and not by sarcastically commanding bad as good and ironically good as bad, therefore in my views the one with all such core beliefs about existence comes into existence and remains in existence, and that is Superman, the man of good fortune, virtues ethics, morality, wisdom, courage, compassion, who always evading humanity causing humanity fighting each other and leads the existence not just for benefit sharing but for moral cultivation of humanity.

  161. Task 1:
    1. D
    2.U
    3.U
    4.VE
    5.D

    Task2:
    If I have to choose between these three ethics theories i.e. Deontology, Utilitarianism and Virtue ethics l will go for a good combination of all as we know real superpower is equivalent to balance of judgment.
    Deontology is a duty based system of ethics. Utilitarianism simply states the believes in greatest good for greatest number. Virtue ethics emphasizes the cultivation of good character traits that enable one to be a good person. We know all what is right and what is wrong varies from situation to situation and person to person. One should try to help and protect maximum number of people in the best moral way with the help of all the virtues one follows. Hence in my point of view a well and healthy mixture of all ethics theories can bring the best moral,ethical, utilitarian decision in every situation.

  162. Task -1:

    1.D
    2.U
    3.U
    4.D
    5.VE

    Task -2:

    With respect to all the three superheroes, each one of them is right in their own way. Like Captain America says, every single innocent life is equally important and equally matters as much as other lives do. On the other hand, Thanos is also right that the sacrifice of a single human can do good to a larger population and that is how we were able to get our independence way back in 1947. And then comes the third one, Superman, who emphasizes individual virtue ethics.
    I would choose Superman to be the most ethical because like he says, if every individual possesses virtue ethics and has empathy towards the other living beings and acts responsibly most of the ethical dilemmas can be avoided.

    Coming to the ethical theories, all three are equally meaningful and make sense when the situation has arisen for their application. But going with what Superman said, I would agree with the theory of Virtue Ethics as it emphasizes individual integrity and intellectual character. As this society is not about just one person and is a collective of human beings, the responsibility of acting right is on every individual.

  163. Task -1
    1. Deontologist
    2. Utilitarianism
    3. Virtue Ethics
    4. Utilitarianism
    5. Deontologist

    Task -2
    According to me , virtual ethics (superman) is the greatest of all the other ethical paradigms. This is because it tells us to emphasize and create good traits in us which will eventually helps us in different ethical dilemmas. As deontologist and utilitarianism are both right and wrong at the same time. Talking about deontologist, it is good that they think more about moral means but what about goals? Killing 20 , if we can save 19 on the sacrifice of 1 is not justifiable at all. As saving 19 lives are more weighable than killing 20 people. And , utilitarianism also is not totally correct to the last extent. As, wiping out half of the population for the prosperity of half is not a good decision at all. Because, those halves will also not be happy as they might lose their close ones .

  164. 1. D(EXTERNAL MEANS, PEOPLE DYING IS INTRINSICALLY WRONG)
    2. U
    3. VE( SUPPORTIBNG BR WIN WAS INTRINSICALLY WRONG HENCE, D ELIMINATED, PLUS ATTACKING SOMEONE WHEN THEY’RE WEAK IS MORALLY WRONG)
    4. U
    5. VE

    TASK II
    While Utilitarianism (supported by Thanos) focuses overtly on consequences, i.e greatest good for greatest number, deontology is propagated by Capt. America who’s supreme duty is to always stand with what is intrinsically and morally correct. Both these relate to conduct of a human. On the other hand the theory of Virtual Ethics pushes a human to be virtuous and have a good moral character at all times. It’s internalization drives Superman. While all ethical theories have pros and cons, most situations exist in the grey area where a complex interplay of all ideologies helps us arrive at the most efficient decision. In my opinion, rule utilitarianism is optimal. It is a blend of consequentialism while keeping in mind the longevity and sustainability of actions driven by a rule. Since the rule doesn’t conform to one single act, it ensures the greatest good for greatest number for greatest time. Eg Differential pricing in airlines. While business class benefits from better amenities, and economy class travelers benefit from lower prices

  165. Task 1
    1. D
    2. U
    3.VE
    4. D
    5. VE
    Task 2
    Most ethical are the ones who always try to serve better. Ethics are the set of rules for making right decision on the right time as the situation demands. That decision is for maintaining balance . Captain America is Deontological by prioritising duties as no innocent should sacrifice. Thanos following utilitarian to save the universe by releasing pressure. Superman is of virtue ethics which is highly desirable. I would agree with three of them as they all are trying to maintain the balance according to the situation demand . Many time a single theory can’t be applied on every situation so they all are ethical in their own way

  166. Task – 1
    1. Deontology
    2. Utilitarianism
    3. Virtue Ethics
    4. Utilitarianism
    5. Virtue Ethics

    Task – 2
    Most ethical is the one who takes moral stand and believe in greatest good for the greatest number of people. Captain America says “We don’t trade lives” taking a deontological stand. It was his duty to take the step for right or wrong keeping in mind no innocent must be sacrificed. Thanos believed in greatest good for the greatest number by killing half of all the living beings from the universe. Sometimes people have to take decisions so that many people could get benefit regardless of the path they choose. Superman was a good and noble character. We cannot choose any one of them as the most ethical. A combination of all the traits refers to the most ethical.

  167. 1- Deontological
    2- Utilitarianism
    3 – Deontological
    4- Utilitarianism
    5- Virtue ethics
    All the three theories – Utilitarianism , Deontological and Virtue ethics are right because in ethics there is no right or wrong ,if I have to choose between them then I’ll go for a combination of all . One should try to help and protect maximum number of people in the best moral way possible with help of all the virtues he follows . Virtue ethics focuses on doing good , being virtuous and having a moral purpose behind anything and everything we do so this theory cannot work without morality or utilitarian values hence a good mix of all theories brings the best moral, ethical and utilitarian decision

  168. 1.D
    2.U
    3.
    4.U
    5.Virtue ethics

    I believe and agree with the utilitarian theory. This theory simply states that to achieve greater good you can sacrifice a small thing. In order to prevent a major thing to happen a small sacrifice by someone outweighs the end result. If the end result leads to the happiness and prosperity of the larger chunk then the sacrifice achieved its real motive. This theory has many dimensions and it solely depends on the person who is caught in this type of situation. There is no right or wrong answers here it totally depends upon one’s cognitive ability and mental thought process. There are various examples which helps us in better understanding this theory.
    1.Partition of India
    2.Creating of Telangana
    3. Thanos planning to kill half living beings.
    But there are also cons of this theory where many people executed and destroyed millions for so called betterment of humanity. Examples
    1.Jew holocaust
    2.Boming of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
    As every theory has its benefits and criticisms ,it is up to the individual to resolve the issues by using best out of all the theories .

  169. TASK 1
    1.DEONOTOLOGY
    2.VIRTUAL ETHICS
    3.UTILITARIANISM
    4.DEONTOLOGY
    5.VIRTUAL ETHICS
    TASK 2
    The three super heroes Thanos for Utilitarianism,Superman for Virtual Ethics, Captain America for Deontology.We cannot determine each hero is ethical because the three are following three various forms of ethical perspectives. Each ethical perspectives has advantages and disadvantages to the other two forms of ethical perspective.There is no equal concrete definitions and judgements because each form have different like the power super hero has.Each ethical perspectives has their own school of thought,followers,
    justification for their thought of action.

  170. Task 1
    1-VE
    2-VE
    3-D
    4-VE
    5-D
    Task 2
    Situationade the legends to be either Dentologist / Thano/Virtual ethic. All these goes according to the situation. All have morality. Morality is one have to make decisions in which 99%good thing and very negligible amount bad thing will happen

  171. 1) Deontology
    2) utilitarianism
    3) virtue ethics
    4) utilitarianism
    5) Deontology
    I agree with the theory of utilitarianism i.e superhero thanos,
    Utilitarianism simply Stated believes in greatest good for the greatest number . It is the only moral framework that can be used to justify military war utilitarianism also has trouble accounting for values such as justice and individual rights. Utilitarian views is that which gives us pleasure. Thanos plans to randomly kill half of living beings so that remaining half can flourish. When individuals are deciding what to do their own utility this gives them pleasure. For example:- if we are choosing ice cream for yourself, the utilitarian views is that we should choose the flavour that will give us the most flavour and it will pleasure us.

  172. 1. Deontology – D
    – As Gandhi gave preference to non violence rather than achieving the goal of independence
    2. Uilitarianism – U
    – As Parition could stop the riots and save millions of people
    3. Deontology and Virtue Ethics – D and VE
    – VE – As Gandhi believed British were fighting against racism
    – D – As he thought launching a movement during WW II would weaken British even it can achieve independence to India
    4. Utilitarianism and Virtue Ethics – U and VE
    – U – As no.of people saved in a pandemic will be greater than the amount of good that can be done by using taxes.
    – VE – As Govt. of India is Compassionate
    5. Virtue Ethics – VE
    – As he is standing up against sexism

    Utilitarianism is a principle where greatest good has to be done for greatest number of people. Thanos wanted to kill half the planet so that the other half could live peacefully with adequate resources. It is similar to saying that COVID-19 pandemic is good as it depopulates the earth and hence results in more resources for lesser number of people.

    Deontology is a theory of non consequentialism. It defines certain acts such as helping others as inherently moral while other acts such as killing is inherently immoral. It disregards the consequences of an act. For example, Captain America thinks killing vision is immoral. The obvious consequence is death of half of earth’s population.

    Virtue ethics is a theory where moral values such as courage, benovelence, temperance etc., should guide human actions. Moral values are subjective and in practical situations the dichotomy of good and evil may not exist. For example Karna is known for his benovelence and loyalty but he failed to stood up against Kauravas when they were dishonouring Draupadi.

    As every theory has its own benefits and criticisms, it is upto the individual to resolve the ethical dilemmas by using one theory or a combination of theories.

  173. 1 D
    2 U
    3 VE
    4 D
    5 VE

    Ethics are the set of rules for making the right decisions when we are faced with a set of choices. Captain America is taking Deontological stand by using duties without taking consequences in the account. Thanos is following Utilitarian ethics by killing half the universe to release the pressure on the universe. Superman is a person of virtue ethics whereby he does right things at right times with the right people.
    None of the 3 superheroes/theories are alone sufficient to deal with every situation and hence are completely ethical. A balanced approach of all the three depending on the situation would be called the most ethical solution to the problem.

  174. Task 1
    D
    U
    U
    D
    V
    Task 2
    If i have to agree with all above ethical theories i would like to go with a healthy mixture of all and at times whichever theories suits the situation best . In my view all the above theories contains eachother regardless of their consequences.
    We should form our decision in a view of taking care of present and future simultaneously with a best possible outcome that can happen .
    If i have to choose from above then i will go with deontology and virtue ethics because future is unpredictable just like kalam sir said past is waste paper,present is a newspaper and future is a question paper . Deontology and virtue ethics both goes for possible good outcome

  175. U
    U
    VE
    D
    VE
    It’s virtual Ethics that i found myself inclined although i found it’s most ethical as found both qualities Deontology and U in it it gives mental peace to the person as it is more flexible. Although all three are equally important according to the situation. Things have their own consequences some times we found ourselves caught in situation in which we just have to take an immediate decision without thinking twice or it’s consequence. Sometimes we just think that goodness for most of people is important or sometimes we have to take an ethical decision when we have to be a good person irrespective of things happening around everybody has different state of mind so one thing can not completely define the dilemma.

  176. 1 Deontological
    2 Utilitarianism
    3 Deontological
    4 both virtue ethics and Deontological
    5 both virtue ethics and Deontological
    Being ethical means choosing what is morally right and which serves the greater good for all. When captain America says,” we don’t trade lives.” He is taking a Deontological stand which implies that some acts are intrinsically wrong or right .So according to this principle he is ethically right in his own way. Whereas, Thanos believes in utilitarianism which implies greatest good for greatest number even if it means sacrificing one’s own happiness. Eg indian partition was accepted because of the riots which were leading to loss of many innocent lives.Therefore it seemed ethical. On the other hand Superman follows the virtue ethics which is highly desirable . Having qualities like wisdom, courage, self control, compassion etc .
    Thus, I would agree with all the above mentioned ethical theories and apply them as the situation demands. Many a times the situation could be such that following one single ethical theory may not serve the purpose hence, it must be a synthesis of all the ethical theories whichever suits the best.

  177. TASK-I

    1) D
    2) U
    3) U+VE
    4) D
    5) VE

    TASK-II

    According to me, Superman is more ethical i.e. “VIRTUE ETHICS” is best over the remaining two ethical theories.
    Since Deontology focuses more on present being good without thinking of the future and Utilitarianism focuses more on thinking about the future without thinking of the present. But Virtue Ethics takes the balanced approach i.e. by being good try to do goods deeds and ultimately the result will be good and if the results are not good then it’s not because of you but due to some other 3rd factor.

    Example- Suppose you are an IPS officer and the MLA of your area is corrupt and hence distributes adulterated food through PDS. Your senior officer know this and inspite of taking action against his fraudulent acts, he himself is involved in the fraud. In this way both makes money.
    In this scenario,
    1) The person who believes in Deontology theory of Ethics will only try to protect people from being sick without thinking of the future consequences. In his eager to to do good deeds, he will get transferred and as a result lifelong suffering to many other lives. (i.e. doing good by thinking only the present not future)
    2) The person who believes in Utilitarianism theory of Ethics will try to expose them at any cost, even at the cost of life of many people for the greater benefit of the society.
    3) The person who believes in Virtue Ethics, theory of Ethics will think of the middle approach i.e. Buddha’s philosophy of middle path and firstly increase awareness among the poor persons, their power of vote and how their votes can make huge difference. Secondly, he will try to convince his senior officer explaining him the moral values and his ethical duty. If he gets convinced then its best and if not then he can approach higher authorities alongwith the persons of that area to file complaint against them. This seems to be the best approach since now people are aware of what’s good and what’s wrong for them, so even if he gets transferred then also people can now handle the situation.

  178. Task1.
    1)D
    2)U
    3)VE
    4)D
    5)VE
    Task2.
    As “Ethics” is universally accepted ‘standards of human behavior’ consists of different philosophies, these philosophies evolved accordingly with the evolution of different personalities, their attitude and their respective situations. Hence we can’t declare whether they were ethical or unethical but, with the evolution of our new efficacies and learnt predispositions could enhance their measures.
    Meanwhile, as caught sometimes in delimas then, being a Deontologist should be the first prior Following the Ethics Virtue serving the moral values, compassion with wisdom and courage,, as stated that the both are non-consequential then along with these ethical values would serve the utilitarianism to get a satisfying result owning a good self-esteem.
    But, if have to prefer one personality then, according to above reading superman serving or cultivating Virtue ethics would be prefer cause cultivating here working as a fundamental or structuring unit by continuing the process of cultivation he would grasp his duty, that is, Deontology!! Further more in situationism,, Just like a chain process.

  179. Task 1:

    1. Deontology – D
    2. Utilitarianism – U
    3. Utilitarianism – U
    4. Virtue Ethics – VE
    5. Virtue Ethics – VE

    Task 2:

    In the contemporary world, people often come across ethical dilemmas and in those situations their conscience may not come into rescue as each available option results into certain good and certain bad. To guide the human conduct in those situations different schools have given different theories.

    Deontology is choosing ethical means irrespective of the consequence. Gandhiji was a subscriber to this school. That is why he has chosen “Non – violence” as a weapon to make India an Independent country.

    Utilitarianism believes in greatest good for the greatest number. According to this theory any action that results into greatest good for greatest number is ethical.

    Virtue Ethics emphasis the cultivation of good character traits. Few examples of these traits are sympathy, empathy, compassion, humility, care, love, courage, wisdom.

    I believe in the theory of Deontology. However, following such a theory requires lot of courage and patience and in few situations the result of the action carried out using ethical means cannot be seen immediately but the fruits of the ethical means can be witnessed for sure. So, it can be said that ethical means always results into “Summum Bonum”, if not now, tomorrow.

  180. Utilitarianism-U
    Deontology-D
    Virtue Ethics-VE

    1.Deontology-D
    2.Deontology-D, Utilitarianism-U
    3.Deontology-D
    4.Deontology-D
    5.Virtue Ethics-VE

    I agree with the theory of Thonas i.e, Utilitarianism.Utilitarianism simply stated believes in greatest good for the greatest number.
    Thonas wants to tell us that the action is right if the result is happiness of the great number of the society or the group .We should always do things for the happiness of the people .
    I have an example which is very much similar to the Thonas from a movie i.e.,Gabbar Is Back in which the Gabbar (Akshay Kumar) He kills the corrupted people of high society to makes the country free corruption but the way he choose to clear the society is wrong his moto is to making the people of the country happy and making the country corruption free.
    The thinking of Thonas is great. He wants to say just that “The Universe is finite,it’s resources are also finite.If the life is left unchecked life will cease to exist”
    His moto is as simple as “Making the people happy in a large volume.”

    • The example you gave of ‘Gabbar is Back’ movie to justify that Thanos was right seems wrong to me. Since both cases are completely different because in the former Akshay Kumar killed or gave punishment to those persons who are criminals or who did wrong things in order to give justice to the society i.e. to do good for good persons and do bad for bad persons. But in the later Thanos don’t even bother to think the person whom he is killing is good or bad i.e. he is just willing to believe that only he is right and whatever he does is good for the whole. Therefore, here Thanos view is dogmatic and hence wrong.
      Akshay kumar views is transition between Utilitarianism and Virtue Ethics.

  181. 1. D
    2. D
    3. U
    4. D
    5. VE

    Three super heros ethical views are good in their point of view. It is difference from different situations. No one is right and no one is wrong. Very difficult to taking decisions in their situation. It’s based on our character.
    Deontology is correct. But, cause some consequences.
    In utilitarianism greatest good for greatest number. End is good. But, at the starting stage we loss something or someone.
    Virtue ethics is basically a good character traits in personal life and prefessional life also.
    My opinion is virtue ethics is perfect to take decision. They follow set of rules and regulations. It’s not work at all times. If it’s existing the saturation level, then we lost something close to us. Virtue is not easy to follow. It’s come from our youngest age.

  182. Task1:
    1.D
    2.U
    3.D
    4.U
    5.VE

    Task 2:

    a)Utilitarianism:
    Communal riots were done for partition,inorder to lead a happy life.so freedom fighters supported it and the other case of, government decision on tax free during an epidemic by considering the main factor pleasure for great number of people
    b)Deontology
    As Gandhiji’s principle was to follow non violence.During non co operation movement at chaurichaura people were not following the same ethical value as a result got suspended and the other case based on negotiation between India and British of india’s independence(peacefully) bysupporting British in ww2.so gandhiji extended his support as they were in par to his values.Hence it was our duty to support british
    C)Virtue Ethics
    “We become good by practicing good not by following the eternal rules”
    In the bestfriend’s case,the friend stands for honesty rather than supporting his friend.As here the good is in practice it falls under virtue ethics

  183. 1. Deontology
    2. Utilitarianism
    3. Utilitarianism
    4. Virtue ethics
    5. Deontology
    I believe in deontology which captain America also chose to be.He always strive to do right things,even when doing so is difficult. Life always encounters us with dilemma. We stand on a road which diverges into two path. We have to make choice between them. We should go with the one which is right without thinking about its consequences as captain America did in the story. Right is right even if it hurts someone sentiment. With deontology virtual ethics also stand like justice and fairness.Deontology means eliminating crimes and not criminals. This is the true meaning of deontology ” duty with morality of human action”.

  184. 1.D
    2.D
    3.U
    4.VE
    5.VE
    When it comes to taking a decision based on a Ethical perspective, there is no singular solution/answer. The result or the outcome of the ethical perspective also cannot often be classified as right or wrong and in the end there is only a dilema, like in avengers infinity war, from a viewers point of view people feel that thanos was right in his utilitarian approach and there are others who would feel he is a straight up mad man. Consequently there are people who would feel that captian america was a mad man for his utterance “we don’t trade lives”, conversely he is often referred as the moral compass for the Avengers, the entire Gandhian approach is considered flawed by many Superman is a symbol of hope, his strength is limitless yet he has and goes by this self rule that he won’t take lives and he has lived by it but there parallels of the man of steel getting corrupt by his very own strength Therefore, it is not about who was right
    Or who’s ideals are right, it is about the situation and the available choice and prioritising the choices available. A neutral stand in the ethical dilemma and a quick analysis of the situation will do good than following only one of the ideas that are available

  185. Task 1: Answer Below
    (1) Virtue Ethics – VE
    (2) Utilitarianism – U
    (3) Utilitarianism – U
    (4) Deontology – D
    (5) Virtue Ethics – VE

    Task 2: Answer Below
    In the world full of ethical dilemmas I consider myself being in all the three situation, where great decisions had to be made on different situations with a adequate consequences in both balanced and win- win situation.
    The ethical approach of Deontology by Captain American cleary justify the act naturally right and wrong but moral duties to be preformed regardless of the impact, this implies the correct sense of mental stability of a person who wants the instant action without prior concern about the impact which might be right or even wrong depends on situation and Individual.
    The Utilitarianism ethical approach of Thanos clearly justify the concern of future stability which indicates a concern and happiness of many in lose of one. This decision will play a vital role in crucial situation where something has to be sacrifice for the overall benefit.
    Lastly Virtue Ethics implemented by Superman clearly defines the Humanity of being humane as it emphasize the good threats being good wisdom, courage, self-control, and compassion . Hereby it encourages a ethical way of approaching a decision which makes inner soul happy being delivering a justice to its consequences because decision made by good approach and traits never goes wrong.
    All the three ethical theory above indicates the level and maturity of thinking on what delivers the best impact so therefore i must consider myself adopting all the three ethical theories in decision making in different situations with a best outcome for the benefit in general.

  186. 1) Virtue ethics
    2) Utilitarianism
    3) virtue ethics
    4) Deontology
    5) virtue ethics
    In ethical dilemmas, it is very difficult to chose which answer is right or wrong as we have to see from all perspectives. So I think that all the theories are important in different situations vary from person to person. Like virtue ethics, it enables us to be a good person which is very important. Like Gandhi ji suspended a non cooperation movement at its peak due to violence at chauri-chaura.
    While in utilitarianism, we do Greatest good for greatest number of people. Like Indian Freedom movement leaders accepted partition of Country after They were unable to calm down communal riots movement.
    In case of deontology , it is important too. It is duty based ethics that considers nether right nor wrong .like govt making tax free medical equipments during epidemic.
    So in my opinion all the ethical theories are important but virtue ethics is most necessary as it makes us a good person and becomes the world better place to live in..

  187. 1. Virtual ethics
    2. Utilitarian ethics
    3. Utilitarian ethics
    4. Virtual ethics
    5. Dentology ethics
    Deontology ethical theory which was persuaded by Captain America, where one follow it’s duty or in other words one follow it’s own principles but one’s principle can be unethical for others, for example gandhiji followed non-violenece theory and bhagat Singh follow violence theory against Britishers both have their own criteria of principles but it affected many people lives as well..
    Virtual ethical theory which was persuaded by superman, where good character trait enable one to be a good person. but a good character person can be a good leader? May be or maybe not
    Utilitarian theory which was persuaded by thanos, where greatest good for the greater number, it can be unethical for other but can be beneficial for no. Of people. for example, current covid-19 crisis where infected person quarantine or separated from family it can be unethical for that infected person but it save other person getting infected
    In my opinion one should have all three ethical qualities but utilitarian ethics quality should be more emphasised because as the time changes the crimes are also increasing and people are becoming more self centred and I believe if one will think with utilitarianism ( where greatest good for greater number) the earth will become better place to live…

  188. It’s the Virtue Ethics, that I find myself oriented towards. Because, it allows flexibility between deontology and utilitarianism. It is intrinsically wrong to kill. Yes. But, when the stake is so high such as half of the world, or 19 lives vs 1, as in the story, it’s essential to make decision taking the wider view. By prioritising a virtuous behaviour, as the guest, I might have asked if there is anyone willing to sacrifice themselves in the group of 20, so that I make use of the chance I have, while also empowering someone in the group, to save the rest. By being a virtuous person, I don’t just follow certain things which I feel it to be my duty or things that I am told as to be my duty, but also look for the best available way to do my duty, while also trying to do greater good for greater number.

  189. 1. Virtue Ethics, because the non-violent means of expressing the need for swaraj by not co-operating was at the core, according to Gandhiji

    2. Deontology, because even though partition might lead to a lot of trouble later, it is intrinsically wrong to just allow many people to die, when they could stop it by agreeing to partition, according to the leaders

    3. Virtue Ethics, because it is not a virtuous act to take advantage of a situation like World war II , where British needs India’s help, to achieve the goals of swaraj, according to Gandhiji

    4. Deontology, because it’s the intrinsic duty of the state to protect its people and to make provisions to lead a life of welfare, by making the equipments tax free at the epidemic, when lives matter the most than taxing

    5. Virtue Ethics, because it is not virtuous to let the lady suffer when she hasn’t done any wrong, by supporting the sexist joke even though it’s by my friend

  190. Task 1:
    1) D
    2) U
    3) U
    4) VE
    5) VE
    Task 2:
    Genocide is a darkest & terrific sight, whatever the situation might be genocide acts as a curse. The sword can never shine bright red with any innocent blood on it, it brings upon greatest misery and torment. A leader’s eye should be unbiased, never prioritizing any group, section or mass. Utilitarianism can be followed in worst situations, when things appear to be out of our hands & there seems to be no other options left. Deontology doesn’t fit in grey areas, where there’s more number of conflicts but can be applied in areas of lesser dilemmas, as it is based on series of rules rather than the later consequences it is rigid in nature , but it reflects morally equal treatment , emphasis on what is right morally, promotes fairness, consistency, rationality. Virtue Ethics deals with honesty & morality of a person , which provides the best guide in resolving ethical complexity but the part of concern is that it is based on human mind which is very complex. Leader shouldn’t be follower of any one ideology, thoughts should be dynamic, with judgement of pros and cons right decision should be made. Based on the complexity and situational reasons , actions are needed to be regulated and rules to be followed accordingly. What fits the morality and well being of people and welfare of the society should be the first preference.

    • 1) D
      2) U
      3) D
      4) U
      5) VE

      Ethics is all about what is right or wrong / good or bad. Some says if results are good, actions are ethical. Others says whatever actions done by virtuous person consider as ethics. Some other says actions done by moral principles are ethics irrespective of its consequences. This never ending dilemma is persistent all our day today life.

      Utilitarianism concern about the results. Whatever the means, if you achieve good results, that is considered as ethics. It has its own issues, as we cannot always predict the results. Results are our assumption or desired goal, it is not always guaranteed. Some people may misuse it by claiming to achive the goal, justify their immoral actions. Eg. Hitler justified his violent actions to achieve the glorious nationhood.
      Virtual Ethics claims that actions by virtuous person is ethics. Virtue is the behavioural aspects of the highest values like integrity, honesty, selflessness. Values are our cognitive belief of right and wrong, it will differ individual to individual based on their own value systems. Being 100 percent virtual person may be reality in utopian society, it is not achievable in our society.
      Deontologist prefer to follow the moral principles rather than focus on results. They claim that doing the good things always lead to the good results. Good things are defined as moral code of conduct.

      Even though following moral Principles are not always guarantees the good results, Deontology is more practical, in the sense, their applicability in our society is more relevant in our democratic society as “people are the one who makes rule, people are the one who takes the consequences”.

  191. 1. D
    2. U
    3. U
    4. VE
    5. VE

    In the cases of Ethical dilemmas, many solutions feels appropriate but choosing the one which does not effect even a single block of cube becomes the challenge because ethically and constitutionally right to equality, right to live is not bounded by only few. Though it seems difficult to stand with Captain America at all times, I believe in Deontology. It lets us see and think all possible perspectives before arriving at a solution which is consequential. Also Virtue Ethics is equally important to have an ethical vision because when we wish our lives to be peaceful, we have to give the same to society and do not mess with other lives. One cannot infringe other rights and desires. This nature has to be developed in humans in order to make a better living.

  192. 1 Utilitarianism
    2. Utilitarianism
    3. Deontology
    4. Virtue Ethics
    5.Deontology
    I believe the Superman which is the Deontology is the most ethical theory among all because the duty to follow moral commands is the supreme. Some acts by its first look seems to be immoral and hence is avoided. we are bound by our moral duty to do things according to what we think is right irrespective of the consequences . For example you saw your friend cheating in an exam but unfortunately while cheating the student behind him (who was not cheating) was caught by the teacher. You have two options first option is easy you can stay silent and help your friend the second one needs courage you will speak up and tell your teacher that the your friend did the wrong this will save the innocent but your friend may cease to be your friend from then. Well its your choice whether to save your friend or save the innocent student .

    • 1. D – Deontology
      2. U-Utilitarianism
      3. D – Deontology
      4. U,D – Utilitarianism,Deontology
      5. V – Virtue ethics

      I belive that Deontology and virtue ethics theory better than Utilitarianism . deontology theory help to think all possible perspective and consequences . And virtue ethics help to cultivation of good character to form a better and peacefull society

      • 1. Virtue ethics
        2. Utilitarianism
        3. Utilitarianism
        4. Virtue ethics
        5. Deontology

        Task2:-
        In my opinion there is no single ethical theory to be relied upon completely. Ethics is the moral behaviour of an individual which varies from person to person and depends upon the situation.
        As every thing has it’s two faces. Anything done in one’s favour will certainly be not in favour for other. For example economy and environment is inversely proportional to each other. But here comes the role of situation. As per the demand of situation we chose the best ethical theory accordingly. It depends on how one sees the situation, how much impact that situation has. As written in our holy books and early text u cannot make everyone happy. But as per the demand of situation me try choose the best.

        With respect to superheroes, as said ,everyone has their own perspective and they think accordingly. In the similar manner these superhero as per their capacity. And all were right in their own way.

        • 1.DEONTOLOGY
          2. UTILITARIANISM
          3. UTILITARIANISM
          4. VIRTUE ETHICS
          5. DEONTOLOGY
          In my opinion virtue ethics is the best ethical theory as it tells that everyone should cultivate good character traits and should try to be a good human being. And when a person will be good he will think both from mind and heart will think for others survival also and when each and every person will be a good human being the world will become a happy and better place to live.

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