upsc ethics

UPSC Ethics Case Studies: Super Simplified

Ethics for UPSC is a relatively new entrant to the IAS exam. It is also possibly the most direct test of your suitability for being a civil servant. Ethic for UPSC Mains consists of either theoretical questions or Case Studies.

Case Studies for the UPSC are usually detailed scenarios of real life where a civil servant ( you) is faced with an Ethical dilemma. By definition, it will be a situation with no clear right or wrong answers. But this does not mean that your answer cant be good or bad. This article and lesson is about writing brilliant answers for Ethics in UPSC Mains.

It all boils down to the mixture of maturity, empathy and analytical skills which you bring to the table. This is easier said than done but easier done if approached correctly.

A simple way to think about your role as the primary agent in Case Studies is to embody the values of Good Governance.

To do this, you must understand a few guiding principles for UPSC Ethics or as I like to call them 8 Ethical Principles or ETHIPALS or 8IPALS Think of them as your pals in the UPSC ethics paper of the mains exam. Take their help and you will cover more dimensions of the Case study than you thought possible.

8 ETHIPALS : Guiding Principles for Ethics Case Studies for UPSC

ETHIPAL 1 : HIDDEN DETAILS

Look for hidden details or implicit information in the Case Study. For instance-” there are unconfirmed reports that politicians and senior officers are offering patronage to the drug mafia”. Here the critical hint is ” unconfirmed reports”. Making a special note of these messages can have a huge bearing on your final answer.

Often these subtle hints point towards solutions. Other times, they can be traps. In either case, watching out for them is not optional.

upsc ethics the devil is in the details
Ethipal ( Ethical Principle)1: Pay close attention to subtle hints, details and traps in Case studies for UPSC ethics

If you don’t pay attention to the implication of these two words and suggest ways to curb corruption etc based on unconfirmed reports, you are likely to be penalized by the UPSC examiner. . The devil is truly in the details, when it comes to case studies in UPSC Ethics.

ETHIPAL 2: IDENTIFY STAKEHOLDERS

Good Governance, good administration and the true purpose of the Civil Services, at least in India, is the welfare of the people. People are the ultimate stakeholders for everything the government does or does not do. Every official decision you take as a civil servant has an impact on multiple stakeholders. Your sensitivity towards identifying all the correct stakeholders is what is tested in the UPSC exam. And in the real world when you join the services.

Ethipal ( Ethical Principle) 2: Stakeholders should be central in your answers for UPSC Ethics Case Studies

For instance, in a case study about Narcotics menace in a border state, as a Police officer posted there you try to identify stakeholders. You may point out the families, drug mafia etc. but you may forget that even the addicts themselves are very much stakeholders in the situation as well. So is the local development administration and NGOs.

Your answers in UPSC Ethics must include a correct assessment of all stakeholders- mentioned or implied-directly or indirectly.

ETHIPAL 3: IDENTIFY ETHICAL ISSUES

There is always a trade-off in Ethical dilemmas i.e. your decision will be good in aspects and not so good in others. These are what you must identify while writing answers in UPSC Ethics Paper. A common issue you will face is Development versus social justice. For example, if you are in charge of RTI and an application demanding some incriminating information against your colleagues is to be decided, you may have to choose between your commitment to publicly disclose information versus your commitment to stay loyal to your colleagues.

upsc ethics case study ethical dilemmas
Ethipal 2 : identify all the trade-offs of your decisions

But before any solution can be achieved, you must identify all the ethical issues involved and mention it in your answer while writing the UPSC Ethics paper.

ETHIPAL 4: PARTICIPATORY GOVERNANCE

Gone are the days when government officials would implement policies in a top-down fashion, up from their ivory towers. Public service ethos of the 21st century demands participation and consultation with all stakeholders. In fact, citizens should be treated as ‘clients’ to be served. This means that stakeholders should be part of the conversation when finding a solution.

Ethipal 4 : Stakeholders should be consulted while finding a solution.

You are now expected to consult not only the stakeholders but other district authorities as well. Your answer in UPSC Ethics paper may not be complete without this aspect.

ETHIPAL 5 : SHORT-TERM RESPONSE Vs. LONG-TERM REPONSE

Case studies in UPSC Ethics usually involve a situation where urgent action is required. This constitutes your short-term response. But most aspirants make the mistake of ignoring the long-term response to the problem entirely. Realize that the long-term response is the only way to get to the root of the fundamental problem.

solutions
Ethipal 5 : Solutions should include a short-term and a long-term response

Whether the root cause of your case study is lack of education or lack of employment, it is not something you can resolve in a week. What this means for you is that your answers in UPSC Ethics paper should include a prompt short-term response to the situation AND a long-term response as well.

A knee-jerk or emotional reaction for the short-term is just as ineffective as an overly ambitious mega-plan. You require a mix of both.

ETHIPAL 6: EMPATHY + ANALYSIS

When faced with case studies in the UPSC exam, you may encounter cases which are genuine. Its easy to give into emotion and empathy in one’s eagerness to prove that they are worthy of being a civil servant. But this is not a great long-term strategy.

upsc ethics how to approach with emotions and logic both
Ethipal 6 : Display empathy and proceed with logic to benefit stakeholders.

Analysis without empathy makes you blind and bankrupt. Logic without emotion makes you either sociopathic or depressed. As an administrator you need both in equal measure to maneuver past the complex situations you will surely face in the real world.

While your empathy must never be absent, how you put it into practice is crucial. You must use logic and analysis to serve your empathic ends and this should be your approach in the UPSC Ethics paper as well. The thumb rule is to display empathy and proceed with logic to benefit stakeholders.

ETHIPAL 7 : CUSTOMIZED SOLUTIONS

The reasons Case studies are littered with details is to enable to formulate very specific and granular solutions to the situation. If you are suggesting a government scheme, you should try to be specific and name one which may be tailor made to the case at hand.

UPSC ETHICS CASE STUDY SUGGESTIONS
Ethipal 7 : Suggest specific solutions tailor-made for the situation at hand

The point is that overly generic suggestions and steps are neither effective nor welcome. In a case study question, it is not enough to say obvious things like – education should be improved, government policies should be strictly implemented and corruption should be weeded out. These are all very much taken for granted. You are expected to deeper into these details and suggest customized solutions.

ETHIPAL 8 : INNOVATIVE IDEAS

Another important but overlooked aspect in Case study for UPSC Ethic is to provide innovative and creative solutions. This does not mean you need to invent a new scheme or develop a new technology. It only means that your solution should have something which is not obvious from the Case Study.

Ethipal 8 : Use hidden details to suggest innovative solutions

For example, a woman police officer tasked with tackling a narcotics menace might connect with the women of the district in a strong way and inspire change from within each household. Suggestions like these in UPSC Ethics paper ( in addition to the usual solutions) shows that you are using Emotional Intelligence, thinking outside the box, are gender sensitive AND are involving an effected but ignored stakeholder as part of the solution.

Another example would be to suggest AI, Big Data etc as part of the solution.

UPSC Ethics Case Study approach codified

You can use an acronym to memorize all the Ethipals listed above: HESS-PICE .

8 ETHICAL PRINCIPLES OF CASE STUDIES = HESS-PICE

H -> Hidden details

E -> Ethical issues

S -> Stakeholders

S -> Short & Long-term response

P -> Participatory governance

I -> Innovative ideas

C -> Customized Solutions

E -> Empathy & Analysis

A note about Answer-writing for UPSC Mains: It is one thing to have the content for writing Answers in the UPSC Mains and yet another to be able to express that content in a concise and effective manner. Most of my students face this problem. It is a subject matter worthy of an entire book. Thankfully, such a book exists-

The Ultimate Cheatbook of Essay & Answer-writing is designed to ensure that you learn how to express yourself succinctly and effectively in the UPSC exam. Explore it if you think your writing and expression can use some improvement.

ASSIGNMENT

Consider a Cast Study from a recent Previous Year Question of the UPSC Mains exam.

upsc ethics case study previous year
Question: How should Rakesh respond to the situation?

Watch a detailed discussion about this Case Study from the Ultimate Ethics MasterClass to obtain a thorough perspective-

Here’s what you need to do-

  • Your task is to answer the question in maximum 250 words.
  • Try to incorporate most, if not all of the 8 Ethipals in your answer.
  • Input your answer in the comments section below before the deadline.
  • Expert panel members will be reviewing and responding to your answers.

Deadline for submission- 24/7/2021 before 11:59 PM

Get to work!

Ravi kapoor, IRS

103 thoughts on “UPSC Ethics Case Studies: Super Simplified”

  1. The key ethical issue implicit in the situation with Rakesh is the choice between upholding the legality of the matter and being sympathetic to the case of the old couple and relaxing the criteria of the scheme availed. Rakesh is a responsible person so he won’t compromise on any aspect of the issue. Moreover, he enjoys the trust of his higher officials which further implies that he has a moral pressure surmounted on him by the higher authorities.
    The actual and potential key stakeholders involved in this issue are Rakesh, the old couple, the local administration, the state health department, NGOs, expert surgeon, and civil society.
    The couple visited Rakesh’s office with an expectation that they’ll be availed of the required benefits of the scheme. Their non-fulfillment of the criteria implies that either they were unaware of the details or thought of convincing Rakesh through emotions to ignore/omit unmet criteria.
    Rakesh has a choice to ignore the criterion, but it will have severe repercussions on his professional and personal life as he is an honest person.
    So, while being empathetic to the couple’s situations and staying committed to his values, he should explore alternate solutions. Rakesh can liaison with the local administration and state health department to explore the functional schemes and financial aids available that can be availed by the couple provided they meet the criteria.
    The problem is genuine and sensitive as it is a rare condition that requires specialized treatment. After exploring and exhausting the government resources/approach, Rakesh should opt for help from civil society. He can help them approach NGOs like CARE India or companies to fund the treatment under their CSR head. Since it is a rare condition that generally gets people’s attention, he can assist them to start a crowdfunding campaign on websites like Ketto, etc.

  2. Being a responsible district level officer tasked with identifying the beneficiaries of the health care scheme, Rakesh is faced with an ethical dilemma between legal and professional values when the old couple arrives at his office.

    Stakeholders involved:
    1. Old couple
    2. Intended beneficiaries in the village under the health scheme
    3. Doctor and village administration

    Options available for Rakesh:
    1. Out of empathy, provide benefits of the scheme to the couple despite the fact that they do not fall under the ambit of the criterion described.
    2. Deny the benefits of the health scheme to the couple and educate them about the other such existing schemes.

    Way Ahead:
    In my opinion, Rakesh should not cover the couple under the health scheme because doing so will create a perception of including unintended beneficiaries under some conditions, which can further nullify the entire idea of helping the intended beneficiaries. Also, it will eat up the allocated funds for the scheme.
    Therefore Rakesh can educate the couple about the existing health schemes such as PM Jan Aarogya Yojana, Saral Bima Yojana that can address the problems of the couple. Rakesh can also take into confidence NGOs, old age home, Gram Panchayat, and doctors in the district and nearby villages to help meet the social and financial burdens of the couple.

    Also, creating awareness about various healthcare and insurance schemes by centre and state governments can tackle similar problems arising in the future.

    • Hi,

      well attempted. You have certainly understood the approach to such questions. However, I just have the following suggestions that might help you-

      1. Try to be as specific and detailed about these answers as you can. If you’re saying that creating awareness will help in the long term, come up with ways to do so.
      2. Give reasons for the options that you choose and don’t choose. Justify why you think what you think.

  3. As above mentioned rakesh is trusted officer by their seniors and also he is civil servant when the application come from the old people without eligible to particular scheme he shouldn’t approved the particular scheme to them rather than he is civil servant he will helps them in alternative manner like by telling about the other scheme which are eligible to them like the schemes Ayushman Bharat, pradhan mantri jana aarogya yojana and also looks forward if the infrastructure will have in government hospital then he will suggest to them if not possible by them then he will suggest to approach the NGOs, civil society to get fund by them by showing his inability to pay money for hospital and also suggest to go through the social media where some of them are helping to the poor. With this case will take as base and suggest their officers to provide the new schemes to them or any correction or updates ik old schemes only by allowing eligible people without any reservation category all people above the age groups of 60 like that as he is trusted by his senior officers they will look after the case trying to bring any new scheme like people to them or updating in schemes

    • Good attempt!

      It’s definitely clear that you have understood how to approach such questions. You’ve also clearly given this good amount of thought.

      I just want to point out the scope for improvement in language. Long and grammatically wrong sentences can mix your point in a maze of words, thus making it difficult for the examiner to mark you. Also, try to reason why you think the officer should choose so and so. Eliminate other options with proper justification.

      Keep up the hard work, you have great potential!

  4. As district level officer he has the responsibility to do what their senior asked for. In this case he has to collect the information about the beneficiaries for the health scheme which has the criteria of 1) senior citizens 2) with econically weaker section. While doing this he got an application of old age which doesn’t fit in criteria no. 2. However by knowing the situation that theirs doctor’s want to do the treatment free of cost but there will be post treatment charges which is quite high and its couldn’t be afford by that senior citizens.
    As an distinct level officer his first step should be to arrange meeting with that doctors who are willing to do the treatment without any cost and also to gathered information about what exactly the amount will be of post recovery treatment.
    Secondly he can arrange meeting with the NGO or and voluntary groups who are in this field if they might help with this. He also take help from social media platforms, as we used during pandemic to raise the crowd fund.
    His next step should be to send the report along with documents related to that senior citizens health and doctor’s prescription and of how much it will cost to the higher authority, he can request to them , may be they accept this case under the health scheme.
    After knowing about this case he will knew that there might be many case like this so For long term step he can make this case as an base to make some changes in the scheme by including this exception case or to include such sub category under which they can put criteria like Old age with 1) income less than ‘X’. 2) without any child etc. Also he can arrange campaign for scheme which government proposed for the senior citizen benifits.

    • Hi Hemangi,

      A well attempted answer. You’ve understood the basics of this approach. However, I see some problems that can be worked upon-

      1. Use of language matters a lot in any answer. Try to work upon your grammar.
      2. As your steps, you’ve mentioned doing things that are already detailed in the case study. Avoid that, and instead analyse these details. For example, the post treatment costs have already been mentioned. You can suggest how these costs might be covered for the couple.
      3. Before you suggest NGOs and other options, make sure there is no available option within the government’s set of schemes.

  5. As a district level Officer, Mr. Rakesh have a number of responsibilities on his shoulders. In this scenario, he must fulfill the legal responsibilities by implementing the scheme in an efficient manner.

    Since the couple is not eligible to be registered under this scheme, therefore they should not be enrolled under the scheme.
    However, they must be provided with some alternative.

    The couple can be registered under various other schemes of the government, like Ayushman Bharat or other health insurance schemes.
    Even if the couple cannot get a good response from the other schemes of the government, the officer can help them to arrange money from various NGOs or corporate sector through funds they have been creating to fulfill their corporate social responsibility(CSR) under the Companies Act 2013.

    But for the long term the officer must ensure that the people in the district are enrolled under various government schemes that they are eligible for them and utilize it’s maximum benefit. Another thing that the officer can ensure is that the infrastructure facilities of the government hospitals is up to the mark so that the people living in the districts do not have to rely much upon the private hospitals and can get their health check up in the government hospital. This will also reduce their out of the pocket expenditure.
    Also, the use of generic medicines should be promoted under the Pradhan Mantri Jan Aushadhi Yojna. He must ensure that there are a sufficient amount of Jan Aushadhi Kendras in the district.

    These measures will help the couple in their hard time and also ensure that such problems do not arise in future.

    • Great attempt!

      I think you’ve understood the approach to such case studies quite well. It’s clear that you’ve also brainstormed to be able to write this answer, especially the last paragraph.
      I do believe that you can perhaps try to strengthen your introductory lines by giving an analysis of the situation from your perspective, highlighting the particular angles that stand out to you and will be address by you in the following lines.
      Apart from that, I think you’re good to go!

      Keep up the hard work!

  6. the case holds the relevance with respect to administrative dilemma in terms of legal verses ethical dilemma. the stakeholders are rakesh old couple, health care workers , higher officials, governtment- state administration ,

    the options available are;
    1) out rightly deny the old couple as a beneficiary
    pros: adhering to the rule of the law
    cons: not being the responsible officer

    2)giving from the own pocket
    pros: immediately helps the couple
    cons: its being sympathetic over empathetic, cant be extended to many with similar issues

    3)extending the benefits under same scheme by relaxing rules as genuine case
    pros : satisfies positive emotional cognizance personally, immediately helps the couple
    cons: leads to chaos and counterproductive by disrupting sanctity of the law , may lead to red tapism

    4) as the couples had filled application and visited already , rakesh should be proactive and educate them about extending the benefits through other health or insurance schemes such as atal pension scheme, ayushman bharat as well as contact those departments regarding the couple . he should also follow up with them by asking them to contact him after 2-3 days regarding benefits. for the medication mukhya mantri swas yojana , generic medicine , public distribution system should be followed.

    5) if still the issue persits couple could be helped through NGO , CSR , civil society . the last resort could be crowd funding indirectly, but ut takes time

    in the longterm the steps could be taken are :
    a) if similar more cases occur , the written letter to be submitted to the senior officials regarding the issue to either enlarge the scope of the scheme or to come up with other comprehensive scheme

    b) building the infrastructure of government hospitals with the help desk enlightening the beneficiaries of various health and insurance schemes by the government other facilities with the required number of beds , doctors , etc

    c) more doctors should be inspired to work for the social cause than the commercial interest

    therfore , the middle path is to be followed here , that is to uphold the sanctity of the law as well as upholding the empathic values to guide the society in the right direction

    • An excellent attempt, Vaishnavi!

      It looks like you’ve really paid attention to the contents and substance of the article. You’ve looked at the situation in just the right manner by clearly evaluating the details and hypothesis, quite like it was done in the video.
      While you seem to have adhered to most of the guidelines, I think you could be a little more specific with some of your points. For example, try and write down what are the ways in which doctors and other health-sector workers can be encouraged to help the needy without commercial gains? Use a little word space to also highlight, directly or indirectly, as to why the long term responses are necessary for this particular case- use the details of the question for this.

      Keep practicing, and I’m sure you’ll do great!

      • yes sir i would adhere to the directions given .
        thank you sir for this great feedback which is really encouraging and boosting the preparation

  7. Assignment

    Ethical issues

    Stake holders are :
    Rakesh, the old couple, higher officials, Government of India, members of the deserving, the community,the Administration,the people,the schemes.

    Ethical issues:
    This case of issue highlights the ethical vs legal attitude, attitude vs sympathy, emotional intelligence vs discretion, kind vs straight view of rules, grace vs law, law of land vs common good and etc

    So, as being a honest officer he must look upon to the rules & regulations but also he must wanted to see their situation.
    So he must wanted to take a positive decision to help that couples.
    Government is to provide good to people beyond anything,so they must be helped.
    And there are lot schemes to ulpift the land and agriculture
    Some are as follows:

    Government Schemes For Farmers
    1. Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi Yojana
    2. Pradhan Mantri Kisan Maandhan yojana
    3. Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY)
    4. Kisan Credit Card (KCC) scheme
    5. Pashu Kisan Credit Card Scheme
    6. Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY)
    7. Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana ( PMKSY
    8. National Agriculture Market (e-NAM)
    9. Dairy Entrepreneurship Development Scheme
    10. Rainfed Area Development Programme ( RADP)
    11. Soil Health Card Scheme
    12. National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture
    (NMSA)

    So they can implement this to ulpift farmers and agriculture.

    And also for the health and environment and to take care of people there are some schemes to provide people
    They are : Healthcare Facilities for Elderly People
    Changes in health care are not simply adding wears services and legal assistance, Investment in research
    to life they are also adding an increased gwally of and training to enhance the quality and cost-
    life to those years. Older peuple mike much leavier effectiveness of care is important. Rational planning,
    demands on health and social services than do young supported by research evidence need urgent
    adults. The most elderly make the heaviest demands attention. Emphasis need to be placed on serting and
    of all. The very elderly also fend to be maintaining high standards of community, hospital
    proportionately highly represented in the most and residential facility care. The work done in
    intensive forms of now-home-secure (such as hospitals and the wy in which this work interlocks
    increasingly important. Identifying and assessing with the carried our by community and valimatry
    need and then organising an appropriate response is organisations will determine the effectiveness of
    Essential. Elderly people can benefit from measures geriatric services Ow age can be a time of
    aged will depend on the effectiveness, the adleymary and personal fulfillment. A holistic approach is
    the
    of provision and the degree of coordination of the required to respond to the challenges posed by
    services. A comprehensive system must be evolved to increasing number of elderly population.
    provide execution, leire activities, health and etc.
    So rakesh must want to help them.

    • Hi,

      A good try. Your answer’s beginning says that you’ve understood how to look at such case studies. I appreciate how you’ve listed the various dilemmas that the officer might face in such a situation. Following are some points that will help you with such questions-

      1. Don’t add information that isn’t relevant to the case given. With the flooded information, the examiner might miss your actual good points.
      2. When you’ve talked about health care services, you’ve made it all very generic which may be applied to everyone in general. However, you need to talk about the stakeholders particularly given in the case study.

      You need to apply your own mind in such situations, place yourself in Rakesh’s shoes, and then write what you think you would and should do.

  8. Rakesh is a responsible, honest officer whose duty is to find the beneficiaries under the health care scheme for senior citizens. old couple who is in need of this scheme could not benefit because of the community belongingness.

    Here, Rakesh aware that old man could not survive if he rejects their application because couple don’t have children and old man cannot work. Further, The surgeon is already committed to do operations without fee charge. Hence the only incidental cost has to be arranged.

    Possible responses from Rakesh:

    1) Rakesh can give them benefit under scheme but his honesty to the government does not allow him to do

    2) He could explain to the couple about the situation of, not able to give them the benefit under the schemes.
    Here Rakesh follows his duty honestly in the cost of life of old man. His conscience dose not allow him to do this.

    3) Another way, Rakesh can direct the couple to benefit from other government scheme like Ayushman Bharat.

    4) He may solve the couple problem by getting help from NGOs like Abhoy Mission, help age India or with the help of village head, arrange the crowd funding from their village.

    Immediately, step 3 is best to follow, In case any hurdle because of procedural delay, documents issue and others he may opt to step 4.

    This problem does not solve here. As per estimate, In India 39% of elderly are either abandoned or live alone.
    In long-term, Rakesh could able to create awareness about health insurance schemes in his district. Also, he could able to recommend to adjust the criteria beyond community through feedback way to the government

    • Good attempt!

      You’ve definitely understood the concept of such case studies. It’s good that you’ve enlisted all the possible responses.
      I just want to suggest a few things for you to work upon-
      First, I see scope for work on language. If you try to better your syntax and grammar, your answer will definitely be better.
      Second, give more details in your responses. For example, in your response C, mention other schemes that Rakesh can approach as backups for the old couple. Specificity is absolutely important.

      Continue working hard!

  9. Rakesh being an honest officer should take care of all his responsibilities.He should provide the benefits of scheme to the old couples who were facing many difficulties.Here Rakesh should guide the old couples regarding there ignorance towards the schemes.Before being an officer firstly he is a human being.but here Rakesh faces both logical and ethical dilemma.such problematic situation which the old couples faced thereafter Rakesh should clear his virtue for helping people further.short term solutions would be that he should reach some of the NGO for helping then and the long term solutions should be he should ask his higher officials for helping them in all financial and health benefits.

    • Good attempt.

      I can see that you’ve tried to put forth your thoughts on the case study in the best way possible. However, I think your ideas and sentences are mixing with each other and not giving a clear analysis of what you think Rakesh should do. Please try to be a little more distinctive with your points, and I’m sure you’ll do great!

      Keep practicing.

  10. Considering the situation, Rakesh has to strike a balance between personal and professional ethics. While standing up to his reputation of a trusted officer, he has to be responsive towards public by addressing their genuine grievances.
    If he responds to emotional appeal, makes an exception and enrolls the old couple for the health scheme for which they do not qualify it can give leeway to further such undeserving enrollments and deprive a deserving beneficiary of his claims. On the other hand, indifferent rejection is not expected from an officer recruited for public service.
    In the best of my opinion, Rakesh should come up with a customized solution within the broad framework of rule of law. He can opt for following alternatives:
    • Inform: Explain the couple how it does not qualify for the concerned health scheme and inform them about other healthcare schemes for which they can meet the criteria. E.g.- Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (AB PMJAY), Integrated Programme for Older Persons (IPOP) by Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, National Programme for Health Care of the Elderly (NPHCE) etc.
    • Negotiation: With couple’s permission he can negotiate with other authorities for enrollment in suitable schemes and offer follow up. In case of urgency, he can negotiate with state or local level people’s representatives.
    • Non-governmental: He can contact NGOs or civil society organizations for initiating crowd funding.

    In nut shell, Rakesh has to upload the sanctity of welfare state within the bounds of professional ethics.

    • Hi Shambhavi,

      Very well attempted. You’ve definitely understood the structure and concept of such case studies. Your answer is well formed, with a sense of individualized approach. However, I would just suggest elaborating on the analytical part so your answer doesn’t read like a very concise, short-cut approach to the problem.
      Good work.

  11. Rakesh, an honest district officer, has the responsibility to identify the beneficiaries. But an old couple fulfilling all the criteria is in immediate need. The couple does not fulfill criterion (B): belonging to a reserved community.
    It is his empathy to give the old couple the benefits of the scheme for which they don’t meet the criteria b, that is belonging to a reserved community.

    According to me Rakesh should give the benefit of the scheme to the old couples, as the following things are not brought in the norms – It is not mentioned in the criteria that it is mandatory for the beneficiaries to have attained all the criteria.
    Fulfill two or more criteria only then they will get the benefit of the scheme.
    If even one of the criteria is not met then the couple are deprived of the benefits of the scheme etc. Therefore, it is proved that Rakesh should give positive response because the relevant things have not been included in the criteria which proves that the old couple should not get the benefit of the scheme because they did not meet the criteria (b).

    • Hi Tanya,

      I appreciate your attempt at looking at it the other way. However, I want to point out the first Ethipal here, and how certain details are meant to be traps and not hints. I suggest considering this possibility before you dismiss the other one.
      If you wish to go ahead with this side, try to work upon the arguments (pros and cons) that will follow.

  12. Rakesh is a responsible district level officer. The government entrusted him with the responsibility of identifying the beneficiaries under a health care scheme meant for senior citizens.
    The couple who are in need of financial aid for the incidental charges of the surgery of the old man who has been diagnosed with a rare condition that causes obstruction in the large intestine.
    In this case, the couple fulfils all the criteria except criterion ‘b’ that is, the couple must be belonging to a reserved community. But the criteria do not meet here.
    The couple might may or may not have the complete knowledge about the scheme, but they know that the scheme might provide some fund, that’s why the approached the officer with the application.
    Here, Mr Rakesh, being a responsible officer, he cannot approve an application which is ineligible on any criteria. But it is also a responsibility of an officer to approach his client empathically and provide a suitable solution.
    Mr Rakesh has complete rights to disapprove the application and he can explain the reason for the disapprove. At the same time, he can council the couple with the proper details of other schemes in which the couple falls under the criteria. Schemes such as Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana and National Insurance Varistha Mediclaim policy.
    This way he can morally and ethically give solution to the couple.

    H -> Hidden details – Rakesh an honest officer

    E -> Ethical issues – Rakesh cannot give approval on the condition of the old couple

    S -> Stakeholders – the couple

    S -> Short & Long-term response – disagreeing the application and providing knowledge of other suitable schemes.

    P -> Participatory governance – discussing with stakeholders, and Rakesh can also consult other officers of his rank in other districts.

    • Hi,

      Well attempted answer! You have an understanding of the ups and downs of the choices that the officer has. However, I’d just recommend considering the following points to make your answer better-

      1. A grammatically correct and well formed answer always appeals the examiner. Make sure you work in this area.
      2. Once you have suggested the short-term response, also determine how the officer can address the problem in the long-term. Complete your answer.

  13. The situation of old couple need to be dealt with emotional intelligence. Rakesh being the district level officer require to give public assistance to the old couple according to Article-41 of the Constitution of India.
    Since the old couple is not able to fulfill the ‘reserved community’ criteria, he need to come up with a immediate innovative solution.
    Rakesh empathizes with the old couple but is facing certain ethical issues in order of solving their problem.

    Ethical Issues:
    1. Professional ethics vs. Public interest.
    2.administrative dilemma of ethical decision vs. Legal decision
    3.emotional competence

    Rakesh need to show emotional competency in dealing with the old couple problem, he cannot let his sympathy overrule his professional better judgement.
    Ethical perspective and measures:
    Rakesh can get the detailed health report on the risks involved. Also how much the couple actually need to cover for medication, if 1lac can be lessened and old couple can be Provided with other generic medicines.

    Short term measure:
    Rakesh can explain the old couple as to why they are not covered but being in public office Rakesh can assure the old couple assistance.
    Hence, he can proactively contact NGOs like Smile Foundation, Rural health care Foundation, Uday Foundation who can ensure that the old couple get the required amount.
    Rakesh can further do role reversal and keep a track on the old couple if they get everything done as the surgeon said. Rakesh should check when the old couple get the money for medication.

    Long term measures:
    1.Rakesh can get the old couple enrolled in schemes like ATAL pension yojna, vaya vandana yojana, SAGE (Seniorcare Aging Growth Engine) initiative and SAGE portal to ensure they form a part of beneficiaries of one or other.
    2. Rakesh can strengthen the district health care system with specialist posted at the centres.
    Also ensure that generic medication is made available in the district in nearest future.

    3.write to senior official about coming up with a scheme that covers people like the old couple who are not covered under other schemes.

    4. Rakesh can involve insight from Panchayati raj head to chalk out a well intended schemes which cover people as such.

    5. Also take old couples feedback and suggestion on drafted schemes and if it need to be made more practical for beneficiaries maximum benefit and minimum harassment of elderly population.

    From the above innovative ideas and customised solution, we can say that Rakesh is very honest and responsible district level officer, who would ensure participatory governance. He would ensure that maximum possible people get benefits out of government schemes and everyone is covered under some or the other. Rakesh would monitor and implement steps as an efficient honest public servant.

    • Great work done with this!

      I think you’ve more or less understood the method of tackling such case studies in the examination. You also seem to have a good range of innovative ideas.
      There are just a few things that I want you to consider.
      Rakesh needs to deal with this using emotional intelligence, but also within professional boundaries as a government officer.
      Second, in the short term measures, it’s better if you first exhaust all the existing governmental routes, such as the schemes that you’ve mentioned in your next paragraph, before moving on to crowd funding and NGO options. Please watch the video again to understand this better.
      Also, when we’re talking about long term measures, we’re not talking about just the schemes that the particular old couple can fit into. We want to suggest easier methods for tackling all such cases in the future. Thus all your points other than the first point will work.

      I think with just a little more work on your language, you’re good to go!

      Keep up the hard work, I’m sure you’re going to do great!

      • Thank you Sir, will definitely incorporate your suggestion and read more minutely. I will work on it. Please keep guiding us Sir to get a good rank and cross the pta hurdle.

  14. The first thing that Rakesh must not do is to come to a immediate decision rather the first thing is to understand the situation, start looking for possibilities, alternatives which could begin by a basic conversation with the couple enquiring if they have any savings with them or any form of money. The second part could be ensuring they are not from reserved classes because there could be cases where sufficient proof is not available for certificate proof, if that is the case Rakesh can perhaps make calls to the village administration to look into it. It must also be noted that this could be time consuming and in medical procedure time is of the essence.

    The second thing that could be done is to point them to insurance scheme such as Ayushmann Bharat and call to the officers involved requesting help could speed up the process.

    In the mean time Rakesh could also conduct a survey in the locality with the help of an NGO to understand and pin point people who face the same crisis.

    Short term addresal of the said problem can be done with the participation of the stake holders the couple, surgeon, the hospital, the authorities involved in various schemes and with the powers conferred in the authorities working in synergy to solve the issue

    The entire idea is to find out alternatives or possibilities that would not compromise Rakesh’s work ethic, morale and values and at the same involves in finding an efficient solution
    Incase if these is a roadblock in all the efforts a group or public funding can be organised

    Long term idea will be to educate the masses about the schemes. This can be done by the use of technology, simple way to is to use social media and post adverts regarding the scheme, take the help of the local press and report the current situation of the couple and use it as a case study to spread the information, taking the help of NGO, posted distribution

    • Hi,

      Well attempted. There is a certain level of understanding that i can see in your answer. However, there is lack of clarity in your ideas because of improper use of language. For example, you’ve used “Secondly” repeatedly, which will make it difficult for the examiner to determine your course of action. I suggest that you work in this area.

      There is also a lack of specificity which can be handled with few more details added to your points.

  15. IMPORTANT HINTS
    Rakesh an responsible and honest District Officer is highly responsible to identify the beneficiaries and meanwhile he needs to keep in mind that the other beneficiaries doesn’t lack behind for a single one .
    STAKEHOLDERS
    Primary = The Old men and his wife is in urgent need.
    secondary = Rakesh ,villagers and the Doctor.
    ISSUES
    1 Should Rakesh provide the Old men the benifit of the scheme even if he doesn’t fullfills the eligibility criteria.
    Or
    2 Should Rakesh should provide him
    the benifit through getting other schemes open .
    OPTION RAKESH HAS
    1 Allowing the old men all the benifits under the scheme .
    Positive point = The old men will be get long term solution .
    Negative point= Rakesh will break the Rule and trust of his seniors and may also make the other beneficiaries lacking backward.
    2 make the Old men to get help from the Bank
    Positive point= He may get loan directly and will came with direct solution .
    Negative points = it may take time as he need urgent help
    3 . Ask help from NGO’S OLD AGE HOME or Other organisations
    Positive point= He may get direct and long term solutions.
    Negative point= it may arise communication and negotiation problems
    4.Grant the old men other benifits and meanwhile ask for donations
    Positive point = In recent time we have seen many people came for help through digital forums ,social media etc
    Negative point =It may or may not came with long term solutions
    Recommendations =
    Rakesh should go with 4 and 5th point options as it has came with both short and long term solutions.

    • A good try, Subham!

      You’ve clearly given this some thought, and tried to come up with the different scenarios. I just want to point out a few things that might help you.
      First, I see scope for improvement in the language area. Writing clearly with proper grammar and syntax will help the examiner understand your points better!
      Also, before you suggest help from NGOs or crowd funding through digital forums, make sure you’ve ruled out all available government schemes.

      Keep practicing!

  16. In the given scenario, for Rakesh, task at hand is identifying the beneficiaries of the the health care scheme for senior citizens based on the criteria listed.
    To achieve the said objective, exhaustive audit in cognisance with the latest census data at tehsil, block and panchayat level is required to be collated by employing the existing govt machinery. Further, the data would be required to be analysed with inputs from employment exchanges and existing NGOs operating towards care and support of senior citizens. Finally, data relevant to medical care viz. primary, secondary, tertiary and day care offered to senior citizens by govt hospitals over a period of time would be required to assess the amplitude and reach of the senior citizens’ health care schemes. Also, private hospitals can be encouraged to be part of the exercise.
    Analysis of the above collated data would reveal the current status, future requirement and shortfalls with respect to intended beneficiaries of the proposed scheme. Thereafter, discussions to be held with various stakeholders viz. heads of Panchayat, block, tehsil, govt hospitals, representatives of various reserved communities, relevant NGOs and eminent senior citizens to fine tune the decisions.
    The old couple in the given situation surely does not fall under the perview of given scheme. However, there are certain govt schemes such as PMVVY and PM JAY which may benefit the old couple. The benefits of such schemes are not instant but prudent and desirable in long time. Considering the current economic condition of the couple, one time support from NGOs may be solicited. Further, if similar findings have been observed in above analysis, Rakesh shall make recommendation for inclusion of such category of citizens in policy as amendment.

    • Hi Arun,

      Very well attempted. It’s good to see your layout of the entire process of determining the actual status of the problem. Very well detailed and explained. However, you need to address the other side of the decisions you take (and do not take) as well. Try to incorporate the reasons why you do not suggest the other options that Rakesh had, and why you chose what you chose. This displays due deliberation on your end.

  17. Rakesh is a district officer who has trust of his higher officials. He has entrusted by government for a scheme giving beneficiary to senior citizens if they satisfy some criteria.

    Stakeholders in the case are
    Rakesh
    The old man and his wife
    People of the district especially senior citizens
    Doctors

    The ethical issues involved are
    Rakesh is a responsible officer entrusted .He has been stuck in ethical dilemma whether to help the senior citizen direly in need of the health scheme .The couple satisfies all the criteria except belonging to thr reserved community.

    If he helps the senior couple he would break trust of his senior officers .He might be rusticated for breaking laws and misusing funds.
    He would also betray the government who had considered him loyal and deserving to head the scheme and given him such a big responsibility.

    If he doesn’t help the needy couple he might feel guilty of letting go a couple in need who were also fullfilling the requirements except belonging to a community. Being a civil servant its his duty to help needy citizens.
    Hence Rakesh is in ethical dilemma between legal ways amd morality.

    If we look for the solutions there can be many ways which can be opted by Rakesh
    1.Rakesh might help the needy couple personally if he wants to until the man’s health gets better , consult them to an old age care home where they get proper care and treatment since they have no guardians.
    There are many NGOs and government run commission which provide support to distressd and ill treated people like orphans or senior citizens.
    2. Rakesh can ask the old couple to go for another schemes implemented by government for the help of senior citizens of which they satisfy all the criteria. Government has implemented many schemes for betterment of senior citizens which have been proved life saver in their old age.
    Pensions are also provided for financial aid.
    3. He could consult the doctor and hospital for granting concessions to the old man for medicines . Since The doctor is giving free treatment worth Rs 1lakh to the man he might be kind and can suggest some alternates .
    Also Rakesh can tell them about dispensary and government run hospital where they can get free medicine and free tests.
    4.For ling term, Rakesh can also write a letter to higher authority asking them permission to assist the scheme benefits to the couple since they follow all criteria except the community one which isn’t in their hands.Because policies are formed to serve people without any discrimination. He could try to change the structure of formation of government policies and beneficiary. So that policies formed in future will only be based on the problems faced by citizens without any social discrimination .

    All these solutions will ensure that the needy couple will not be left unhelped and also the loyalty of Rakesh towards government wont be affected.

    • Great attempt, Vanshika!

      I can see that you’ve paid attention to the details and read the article carefully. There are just some things that might help you make your answer a better read for the examiner.
      While your first solution might be something that comes to anyone’s mind because of sentimental values, you need to remember that as an officer you have to suggest ways that do not work just for exceptions. If you’re making an exception once, chances are you will have to repeatedly do so- and it’s not possible for any officer to personally aid everyone who is grieving financially.
      Also, try to be more specific in your other solutions. Avoid giving generic advice. Mention which schemes might suit the couple, exactly what sort of long term measures you would want to take.

      Keep up the hard work, I’m sure you’ll do great!

  18. Rakesh is a honest, reputed and responsible officer of his department. At first Rakesh should check all the documents, and confirm that they are believable or not after that according to me , there is nothing like dilemma if they are not eligible for the Beneficiaries scheme . And he wants to help them then he should tell them or educate them about the other schemes of government which are helpful for that couple.

    We saw that there are stakeholders which are like as Rakesh, Doctor, Administration and the couple.

    And there should not exist any emotional intelligence. Because of this a person is not able to take the good decisions. So Mr. Rakesh have to take a decision which is good for both (couple & himself ), And if he is able to get them help unofficially then he should support them by helping in their medical issues.

    • I like your different way of approaching this.
      I would suggest that you refrain from implying that one shouldn’t employ emotional intelligence in a situation such as this one. It makes you look like a cold, severely technical human who cannot empathise with the public. You don’t want the examiner to think that way about you.

      I’m sure you’ll come up with a better answer if you just go through the article and video again, and try to frame your answer after giving it some thought.

      Keep practicing!

  19. As a district officer , Rakesh has big responsibility towards the every people of that district .
    Stakeholders are ghr old couple who are financially not stable , and helpless.
    Ethical dilemma – Rakesh will also in dilemma because in one side he has responsibility to help those who needed , and same in another way he has to follow the gov. Schemes , rules and regulations.
    In this time he should become more stronger by emotions.

    Sometimes , scenario will be different than what we are forced to see , so by using this ethical value he has to find out either they are true or not ?
    Then after , if help is needed , he can suggest them for NGOs or any other govt. Schemes which help them by financially.
    He should aware them new new schemes of govt. and citizen rights .

  20. The Stakeholders involved in this case are the old couple, District administration as well as the expert surgeon.
    The ethical dilemma Rakesh encounters in this case is a trade off between his legal responsibility and moral responsibility. As an administrator, he can’t go beyond rule of law to help the old couple. However, as an emphatic government official, he ought to help the couple.

    Rakesh should seek out other government schemes which might be of help to this couple. Schemes like Ayushmann Bharat which provides medical insurance can be explored.
    In case, suitable schemes are not available, Rakesh could explore other options like online crowdfunding. As a district level officer, he could ask his seniors to reach out to few NGOS who could collaborate with district administration to work on such cases.
    As a long term measure, he could motivate the villagers to form a self help emergency fund in which all of them contribute some amount to be collectively available during such health emergency.

    Rakesh should also write to lawmakers including MLAs and MPs to enhance the domain of scheme so as to include more needy people like the old couple. Such feedback from district officials important for policy making which is inclusive and consultative.

    • Hi Ankit,

      Very well attempted. You have understood the concept. I like how you gave the idea for a self-help group fund. It’s innovative and workable. I would just suggest that you work a little more on your language so you can present these good ideas in an attractive manner.
      Good work.

  21. Mrs. Rakesh been given a job of district level officer has an obligation to find an appropriate solution for this. Why? As this caters to the vulnerable sector of the society. Here, the task being assigned is of only identifying the beneficiaries of the scheme. IS where the ethical dilemma comes into place where he has to choose between his work ethics and individual ethics. (as the aged couple doesn’t satisfy the criteria B)
    The key Stakeholders: Primary Stakeholder: People above the age group of 60, people from reserved community, Income less than one lakh, diagnosis of a disease.
    Secondary Stakeholder: Reserved community and the related family members, Government officials, Doctors, Related hospital and staff.
    Here we see a trade off between the norms set and the intrinsic humane values.

    The available Options:
    Short term solution:
    1.Rakesh can talk to the aged couple and empathise with them and assure them of necessary action around this.
    2.Flag this to the higher authorities and ask for an exception to be made in this scenario (as he cant take a call on exception).
    3. Alternative schemes can be suggested to the couple like National programme for health care for elderly and necessary stages.
    4. Help of Panchayats and other NGO’s can be taken up to bring sector under.
    Long term Solution:
    1. Implementation of other schemes: Surveys and social Audits can be carried out with specific data, and necessary changes needed in the schemes can be bought into data. This will help in down top information flow.
    2. Data Analytics: The technology of data analytics to present the data to the higher authority, so that the changes can be bought and accurate analysis and changes can be bought. This can help in reducing corruption, and customise the schemes.

    The available options are have very innovative ways and which will help on finding solutions for long run. Improvise the scheme and overall functioning of the sector.

    • Hi Nidhi,

      Well attempted. You have understood the structuring of these case studies, and what needs to be done. However, I just see two problems

      1. There is a scope for improvement in the language part. If you work on it, your points won’t mix with each other.
      2. If you ask your seniors to make that exception, chances are you’ll have to ask them to do so again. However, that’s not feasible in the long term. So avoid making such points, unless you can prove that they won’t work against you in the future.

  22. Rakesh being a responsible and honest officer must guide the old couples for there ignorance regarding different schemes.
    Here Rakesh should sort out
    Rakesh can review the existent policies and and ask the policy makers to provide required information to reach out for people.
    Rakesh can enlist all the post retirements benefits and create awareness to Right to access to information to the couple.
    Since the couple is in need at the moment, he can guide through another means of help through NGO and other operations which are helpful to the couple and make sure that the man is cured.
    He can recommend another sources to accompany him through the process until it’s done.
    Since the policy is meant for only the people listed in the categories, he should not deviate on that, but instead provide alternative ones which are required to him. There are many other sources from which he could provide financial or medical support.

    • Good attempt!

      From your last two lines I can see that you’ve understood the concept of this case study quite well.
      I would just suggest being clearer and more specific about the “options” that you are referring to, and mention what “sources” or processes you’re going to follow for this. Also, try to give reasons for these choices.

      Continue working hard!

  23. Assignment
    Rakesh is the district officer, this is his responsibilities to make benefit of this scheme to the needy person in the present case if there life can be saved then he should keenly think about the process but the dillema raised the old man died not fulfill the criteria, rakesh should see another scheme which are available in the present time and make them profit ASAP if the old man has time to do his surgery then the other option is to consultant with ngos, or collect amount of money from each people little by little and can help them being a officer theres a rakesh responsibility to do the best things for the old man

    • Nice answer. It’s good to see you employing both logic and emotions.
      Try to be more specific with such cases. Do not leave your answer with generalised solutions.

      Keep practicing!

  24. As given in the case study, Rakesh is responsible district level officer who is facing a moral dilemma.In this case his values are at conflict the value of OBJECTIVITY (to follow the rules and procedur)and the values of COMPASSION (to help and reduce the suffering of poor).

    Stakeholders:-1.)Rakesh -as a district
    officer
    2.)Government
    3.)Beneficiary (Old Couple)
    4.)Doctor
    In this situation Rakesh has the following alternatives in the order of priority:
    1.)As district officer he can explore other skills of the centre as well as State Government under which the poor old couple is eligible to avail the help for the cost of incidental charges.
    2.)In order to make the exception official, it requires Rakesh to get approval from higher officials by explaining the case to them. 3.)Considering the seriousness of the incident and need for urgent care, a one time exception will be helpful in making life better of an individual.
    4.) If all the above options do not work then he can contact the NGOs trusts or individuals who are working in health sector and can help the old couple in bearing the incidental cost of surgery.
    5.)If there is no support from NGOs, Rakesh will have to raise funds from public to handle the treatment. If the amount is on the lower side, Rakesh can also encourage the locals of his district to make an SHG (Self Help Group) that can provide monetary support to the underprivileged at the time of distress.
    Rakesh being a district level officer has enough authority to take all these measures in the way to help the poor couple. The government health schemes should not just be limited to a particular section of the society if the country seeks to achieve its inclusive growth objective. Rajesh should write a letter to the respected authority explaining this ground-level situation and inadequacy of the respective Health Scheme, this will help the policymakers in the future.

    • Hi Pooja,

      Well attempted. I think you have understood the basic concept of these case studies. However, there are a few things you should work upon-

      1. For the second and third option that you have offered for Rakesh- even if you imply that these can be considered before moving to NGOs, and only if other schemes are not available, you need to analyse for yourself if even suggesting these as options is what an officer would be expected to do. Making exceptions is hardly ever a one time case in such situations, and you need to consider that.
      2. I think some of your points get confusing because of language mix-up. You can easily work this out with some practice.

      I’m sure you’ll get a clearer idea from other responses, or by going through the article and video again.

  25. Rakesh is into a situation of ethical dilemma where he has to choose between professional ethics and personal ethics

    Options available for Rakesh
    1. Turn down the appeal of old couple as they do not come under intended beneficiary
    Pro: He is strictly sticking to the law land and withhold his professional ethics
    Cons:lacks the quality of empathy
    2. Use his own finances to help the couple
    Pro: provides moral satisfaction to Rakesh
    Cons: he can’t do it all the times as he himself is a government servant with limited financial resources
    3. Enrol the couple into health insurance schemes like Ayushmann Bharat which also covers pre and post hospitalisation costs and ensure financial stability by enrolling them into national social assistance programme of government eg: old age pension scheme
    Pro: satisfies both his professional as well as personal ethics
    Cons: bureaucratic hurdles -red tapism to get the benefits
    4. For a long term benefit Rakesh can approach NGO’S , welfare houses , civil societies to take care of old couple
    Pro:security of life for the couple
    Con:procedural lag and insufficient finances for NGO’s can be a hurdle

    Rakesh is no less than any other officer who encounters same situations in every day life. He can navigate the hurdle by choosing best possible option among the given.
    Further in future to tackle such kind of issues Rakesh can make a database of rare health diseases and prevalent diseases in the district . So that he can implement national digital health mission where the patients will be given unique identity cards which can connect patients with right doctors and easy for Rakesh to enroll them into right schemes

    • Hi,

      Well attempted. Your answer tells me you have understood the overall method of handling such case studies. However, there are a few things I would like to point out-

      1. Reaching out to NGOs or other such funding sources might not be the best long term solution as offered by a government officer. Even if you do suggest this, also add something that is more on the lines of what the government can provide.
      2. Once you have listed all the options, also mention which of these you think would be the best and mention why- by weighing the listed pros and cons.

  26. According to the case study As a district level officer who enjoys the trust of his higher Officials, Rakesh is entrusted by government with responsibility of identifying the beneficiaries under health care scheme for senior citizens.
    One day he met old couple seeking inclusion as beneficiaries in the scheme, but unfortunately they do not belong to reserved community which is one of the criteria to be a beneficiary.
    Rakesh is facing the dilemma between his personal and professional values .
    There is ethical dilemma between ethical decision and logical decision.

    Stakeholders are the old couple who are financially weak,scheme Beneficiaries, NGOs and Foundations,The surgeon,Public representatives,Rakesh(District Level Officer).

    But as a responsible officer Rakesh have to do his duty sincerely serving towards the old aged couple by becoming pro active providing alternative ways and schemes by following the rules and norms of the work, Without being emotionally because he cannot help each and every family for such situations in the future.If he helps from his own source it may be considered as partiality for others who are facing the same situations.

    Alternative methods :-

    1.He can Explore other schemes of the centre as well as state government ,under which the poor old aged couple is eligible to avail the help For the cost of incidental charges.

    2.Rakesh should opt for the approval from higher officials by explaining the case to them. Considering the seriousness of the incident and need for urgent care, a one time exception will be helpful in making life better of an individual. But Rakesh must be absolutely sure about the other criteria to be fulfilled.

    3.Help from NGOs, various schemes such as( Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana) ,Ayushman Bharat is National Health Protection Scheme which can be a help for poor and vulnerable families , providing coverage upto 5 lakh rupees per family per year for secondary and tertiary care hospitalization.
    4.Public contribution
    If there is no support from NGOs, govt schemes are not implemented on time then Rakesh will have to raise funds from public to handle the treatment. If the amount is on the lower side, Rakesh and some like-minded individuals can donate for the treatment. Since the process involves long term economic hardships, it is necessary to collect additional funds through public platforms and fund raising. This will help in securing livelihood of the individual in question and not just treatment.
    5. Make the poor educate about all these alternatives ways and get them to approach as soon as possible.

    Rakesh must not violate rules and norms in order to help the individual. Alternative measures are best suited to handle the situation.
    Thus, professional duty and personal empathy must not be mixed. A middle path that does not create any problems has to be followed.

    • Hi Shivani,

      Very well attempted. You have answered this in a structured manner, I appreciate your efforts. However, just some things I would like to point out-

      1. You can probably work on your language skills, as it will help you with clarifying your points much better and make it easier for the examiner to mark your answer.
      2. When you’re talking about educating the poor, don’t leave it there. Add details, and specifics of how this should happen to cater to the given situation and its long term possibilities. Same goes for your first point.
      3. In case of exceptions, analyse the pros and cons properly before you suggest it as a course of action. Maybe you can understand this better from the video.

  27. From the given situation it is very clear that the old family who visited rakesh’s office are not eligible for the given health beneficiary scheme. it is also very clear that, even though the old couple doesn’t fit in the criteria of the particular scheme, they are in equal need of the required health beneficiary. when government introduces various schemes and programmes for the welfare of the people it tries its best to get everyone covered under the umbrella of various schemes , as it is the right of every citizen to get the required beneficiaries.

    As rakesh is a very responsible officer and enjoys the trust of his seniors, he should not allow this couple to enjoy the beneficiaries of the scheme. rakesh is entrusted with this responsibility, majorly because of his honesty and if he is allowing this couple for the scheme, he is clearly breaking the law.
    but as the district level officer its the responsibility of rakesh to provide solution to every deserving person coming to his door.
    Rakesh should personally talk to the couple and let them know about the other schemes available, and see if they fall under any of them. and if not, then rakesh can call upon some NGOs to help or should do crowd funding, as the couple has been living in this village since their birth, there are fair chances that crowd funding could collect enough money.

    further this situation also highlights the condition of not only that old couple but so many other people who could not afford medical expenses. in the long run, rakesh should go for developing better medical infrastructure and facilities in the district. Specially among the government hospitals where people should get incidental charges at a fair price.
    Health plays a very important role in each individual’s life and it should be the duty of every officer to look after every possible way to get adequate facilities for everyone.

    • Great attempt, Rishika!

      It’s quite clear that you’ve grasped the essence of this approach to case studies. I liked the way you introduced your answer by briefly analysing the situation.
      I just want to suggest improvement in two areas- One, try to be more specific about the other schemes that Rakesh should suggest to the old couple. Do not make it a general answer. Two, mention the steps or ways in which Rakesh should develop medical facilities in his district and in what areas does the infrastructure need most improvement.

      Keep up the hard work, I’m sure you’ll do great!

  28. The above situation demands an action well versed with probity interms of rakesh and his administration capabilities as a whole.
    Stakeholders involved:
    Rakesh having the notion of trust with legality norms.
    His officials and organisation as a whole believing in the capacity of rakesh.
    Govt and action aspects of health sector through beneficiary norms and schemes.
    Old couple having sense of relation with rakesh as same village members
    Surgeon having ethical competence interms of sarvodhaya
    Ethical dialemma :
    With respect to rakesh ..personal vs professional ethics
    .rules obedience vs emotional intelligence.
    .As rakesh is a well trust prone officer he needs to behave in an objective manner There are stances like alme palmstrong who have gone out of the box for walking an extra mile to help the needy.The bhilwara model is the real description of people first approach interms of health sector . Rakesh should consult the ngo and local administration for creating a divisible pool of resources .Though there are schemes like interms of Ayushman bharat but the officials need to be contacted for any tidbits in this regard . Senior citizens welfare fund needs to be made and used for better and targetted delivery so rakesh must apply emotional intelligence in the form of assistance and aid through local organisations.
    Rakesh s action will have positives like
    Trust building on part of citizens
    Capacity of administration leading to bottoms up approach
    But there are negative instances
    Malafide beneficiaries may born out of evil means
    Lack of support and institutional balance
    As cited by Gandhi g be the change u want to see In others the sarvodhaya lies in working fr the most last ones. Rakesh is a trust worthy person he needs to work objectively under legal terms along with growth of life as a whole

  29. In the given scenario Rakesh faces an administrative dilemma between an ethical decision and a legal decision. as per Kant’s dentology , if Rakesh acts in the way he thinks is morally right and makes an exception with the scheme to include the old couple, he might not be legally right. it can also lead to a complete administrative chaos and he might also breach the trust of his higher officials, chances are also high that the another deserving person from the reserved community might miss out on the benefit of the scheme.
    As Rakesh can do for the couple that he can collect the details from the old couple and if they come under any other government schemes like Ayush, Health care for senior citizens scheme, Rashtriya vayoshri yojana etc once all the official routes are exhausted and if the couple still does not receive help,
    Rakesh can provide funding from NGOs,Civil society,sponsors scheme with could benefit the couple get in the short term benefit it plays a alternative option and for the long term measure, Rakesh can communicate them to the government and seek the policy framers help to widen the scope of beneficiaries and also provide relaxation in the eligibilit criteria like B in this scheme
    and if possible also provide them with an assured disposable amount every month which can be used at the time of emergency.
    finally for making a balance between empathy and law in society, Rakesh as an officer must be a neutral in dealing any kind of issues arises in a society.

    • Good attempt, Sushma!

      You have covered most of the important aspects in this case study. It’s good to see that you’ve understood the approach.
      I just recommend working on your language skills a bit more, as the syntax and grammar problems are confusing your points with each other. Good presentation always works well! Also, mention what sort of disposable amount you wish to provide them with, why, and how it’s going to work for every other similar case.

      Keep practicing!

  30. An honest and responsible district officer, Rakesh, whom the government has entrusted with a responsibility of identifying the beneficiaries of a scheme, has come into a situation where he has to chose between his professional ethics and moral ethics. This happened when an old couple approached him for his help. The couple wanted to be the beneficiary of the scheme in which they do not fulfill one criteria i.e. belonging to a reserved community.
    The couple do have a genuine need. The morality and empathy in Rakesh want to help them but legality do not allow him. Here if we observe the problem lies in the wrong choice of scheme by the couple. This may be because of non awarenes of other schemes. Hence Rakesh do have the option to help them in a legal way by helping them to be beneficiary of some other schemes like Ayushmaan bharat scheme. He can make sure that they do get the required amount on time. Along with that he must also ensure to make them aware of other schemes which may benefit them and help them to apply.

    In case there is no present scheme which can help the couple he can still take the help of NGOs or civil societies. The option to help the couple with a scheme where they do not fulfill the criteria is not available to Rakesh. Because this may result into not only the violation of law and breaking the trust of the government but also it will invite many more requests for the same scheme who do not fulfill the criteria. This may also result into a loss to the targeted beneficiaries of the scheme.
    Hence the need would be there to aware the people about different schemes. And make arrangements for every schemes to reach the intended beneficiary.

  31. As a district level officer, Rakesh is entrusted with responsibility of identifying the beneficiaries under health care scheme for senior citizens. During the process, he came across a form submitted by old couple seeking inclusion as beneficiaries in the scheme, but unfortunately they do not belong to reserved community which is one of the criteria for inclusion in scheme.
    The stakeholders in the case are old aged couple who are from economically weaker section but do not belong to any reserved community. On other hand, there is competing rights of the old age people from reserved community.
    The above given situation can be considered a dilemma between professional duty and personal empathy. Public officials are expected to work for the welfare of society but not at the expense of violating rules and regulations.
    Rakesh may be sympathetic towards the older man regarding the condition but it will be highly unprofessional and unethical to allow misdeed to take place by tweaking rules.
    On receiving the application, Rakesh should firstly try to engage in a conversation with the old couple and proactively ensure that the couple understand how they don’t qualify for the above scheme but there are various other public schemes like Varistha Mediclaim Policy, Pradhan Mantri Vaya Vandana Yojana, National Programme for the Healthcare of Elderly(NPHCE) etc. and also claim pension under policies like Varishtha Pension Beema Yojana under LIC and Senior Citizen’s Welfare Fund for their healthcare. Secondly, he should hold meetings with NGOs working in health sector for old age people and public spirited citizens, and see if the couple can get assistance through the NGOs.
    As a long term solution, Rakesh should expand the facilities under government hospital so that people like the old couple don’t have to go to private hospitals.

  32. Rakesh, being an honest and trusted officer has been entrusted with an important task of identifying beneficiaries to the health care scheme that carefully fall within the categoric water tight compartments set by the Government. The task of carefully enlisting these beneficiaries falls on Rakesh who must act in accordance with the legal mandate that has been created under the said Scheme. While working on this matter, Rakesh is faced with a peculiar case of an old couple who are in need of monetary assistance w.r.t. a certain ailment of the husband. Given the fact that the couple is elderly and and has an income of less than 1 lakh ₹ p.a. makes them very vulnerable and in need of assistance. They qualify under all the categories of the Scheme except the ‘reserved community’ part, which renders then incapable of availing the benefits of the said Scheme.
    Rakesh has a moral obligation to help the needy elderly couple and at the same time to uphold the legal mandate and contravene the provisions of the said Scheme. Being posed by such a dilemma, Rakesh has two options:
    1. To suggest an alternative route to the family w.r.t. other available schemes, or;
    2. To find alternate methods to ensure some level of monetary help is available to the couple.

    While opting for the first option, Rakesh can make the couple aware about the Ayushman Bharat Yojana and several other Schemes run by the state that protect the interests of the less-privileged people. While ensuring that he guides the couple to a more suitable option, he must also make sure that they are not devoid of the benefits due to any documentation error or otherwise. For the same, Rakesh owes a duty as a public servant to help the elderly avail the benefits of the scheme which can be ensured through timely follow-ups.
    Rakesh, after exhausting the options of Governmental help, may choose to tap the doors of any NGO or Social Activists on behalf of the couple to generate a sensitivity amongst the masses to come ahead and help the elderly. Given that Rakesh enjoys a good repute amongst masses, he can use it to appeal to the right authorities to take an empathetic approach towards the couple.

    These actions will ensure that Rakesh doesn’t deviate from his professional and moral obligations as far as possible.

  33. Rakesh is a district level officer known for his honesty .as given couple fufill every situation just one criterion left .here rakesh need to be responsible toward his duty as well as towards the couple.
    Hidden details : surgeon is providing them free surgery
    Ethical issue: emotional sentiment and reponsibility towards his duty
    Stakeholders: rakesh sir ,old couple ,govt., Doctor.
    Short term solution can be like rakesh help them financially or enroll them in the scheme but this move wouldn’t help all other persons with same problem.
    Rakesh needs to be empathatic and introduce other schemes like Ayushman Bharat ,demand help from NGO to couple .
    He should be in contact with couple untill they got treated and help them in all other ways possible.
    Conclusion : this type of situation should be tackle carefully ,he should be empathetic not sympathetic .possible alternative should be given but anyhow their problem should be solved.

  34. Being a responsible district level officer tasked with identifying the beneficiaries of the health care scheme, Rakesh is faced with an ethical dilemma between legal and professional values when the old couple arrives at his office.

    Stakeholders involved:
    1. Old couple
    2. Intended beneficiaries in the village under the health scheme
    3. Doctor and village administration

    Options available for Rakesh:
    1. Out of empathy, provide benefits of the scheme to the couple despite the fact that they do not fall under the ambit of the criterion described.
    2. Deny the benefits of the health scheme to the couple and educate them about the other such existing schemes.

    Way Ahead:
    In my opinion, Rakesh should not cover the couple under the health scheme because doing so will create a perception of including unintended beneficiaries under some conditions, which can further nullify the entire idea of helping the intended beneficiaries. Also, it will eat up the allocated funds for the scheme.
    Therefore Rakesh can educate the couple about the existing health schemes such as PM Jan Aarogya Yojana, Saral Bima Yojana that can address the problems of the couple. Rakesh can also take into confidence NGOs, old age home, Gram Panchayat, and doctors in the district and nearby villages to help meet the social and financial burdens of the couple.

    Also, creating awareness about various healthcare and insurance schemes by centre and state governments can tackle similar problems arising in the future.

  35. Stake holders:
    Rakesh, the old couple, higher officials, Government of India, members of the deserving community.
    Ethical issues:
    This case study highlights ethical vs legal attitude, emotional intelligence vs discretion, honesty vs utilitarianism, law of land vs common good

    Course of action:
    I
    ————————
    1.Giving benefits to 2.denying them
    the Old couple

    1.Giving benefits to the old couple:
    # Rakesh, a district level officer may give the benefits to the mentioned old couple considering their financial
    backwardness and his discretion, ignoring the criterion B under the utilitarian perspective
    # This may satisfy his empathy (alter ego) and makes a significant difference in the old couple’s despairing lifestyle.
    # As none from the mentioned community approached him prior seeking help, he may get a BIG DATA regarding the unreported sufferers of particular illness and make them available for this scheme. If there’s genuinely none of that sort, benefitting this old couple with authorities’ consent would be a wise decision.

    2. Denying them
    # As Rakesh is known for his honesty and enjoys the trust of higher authorities, it is his moral obligation to follow the rules and secure his trustworthiness.
    # Rakesh may help the couple out of misguiding emotions logical actions not only save his reputation but also adds a feather to his cap.
    # Rakesh may benefit the old couple breaking law of the land in secrecy as none would find it immediately but he will be derogated once found.
    # Rakesh may help them out of his pocket for short term but this would not help in long run. Introducing them to opt schemes and guiding them through proper mmedium may lead to red tapism and may delay the patient’s treatment..

    Conclusion:

    1.Rakesh may consult wwith the stakeholders like doctor,who is ready to ooffer free sservice considering the needs of old ccouple to bear the post -surgery expenditures, may arrange the free government medical services and act accordingly.

    2.a Vail them schemes like ayushmaan bharat for generic medicine and through proper negotiations, avail them MPLAD, MLALAD considering their habitation in the same village since birth.

    3. Considering all the government procedures, their inability of accessing this particular scheme may be acknowledged to corporate society, civic community, philanthrophists, self help groups,NGOs, youth red cross service, National service scheme of locality college students and crowdfunding through online social media Or community funding.
    4. Approaching the policy makers or respective department secretaries for enlarging the scheme with necessary modifications or introducing the new scheme will not be a better choice as the officer’s assigned job is to find the right beneficiaries for particular scheme and not mending the scheme as per beneficiary. But, considering the motto of creating civil servants as to treat CITIZENS AS CLIENTS, the necessary modifications (like how the customized services)can be made to address the very purpose of the assigned role.
    ” LET’S SEE GOD IN POOR’S SMILE”, SAID PERARIGNAR ANNADURAI. Bureaucracy is the best means to serve poor. Hence it is Rakesh’s responsibility to ease the lives and livelihoods.

  36. Rakesh is a district level officer, being honest with his work in the current situation he is in ethical dilemma between empathy and rule of law. An old couple has come to him for health beneficiaries but fail to fulfill the (b)criterion of the beneficiary. They need help as the old man is suffering from rare large intestinal ailment

    Stakeholder
    The old couple
    Rakesh
    Doctors
    People in need
    Doctor
    Government

    In this case the old couple needs help but can’t avail the scheme Rakesh has to take immediate action to help the old couple which could include:
    1.Talking to the surgeon dealing the medical history of the man
    2.finding out the cost of the surgery and finding out whether any government hospital has the surgeon and the surgery could be done for free there.
    3.helping them out with other eligible government beneficiaries like PM Vaya Vandana Scheme, NPHCE, Varishta mediclaim policy etc.
    4.Many NGO’s are there which are willing to help people in need and contacting them
    Through these ways Rakesh can help the old couple and the ethical value could be that he should be in touch with them whether they are getting proper benefits and keeping a check on his health
    Through these ways Rakesh can get rid of the ethical dilemma.

  37. Rakesh, a responsible, honest , trustworthy district officer is expected to work for the welfare of the society but not at the expense of violating the rules and regulations.As the old couple do not fulfill the category criteria, therefore unfortunately would not be able to avail the benefit. Funds intended for the scheme cannot be diverted on a personal whim depriving intended beneficiaries. The ethical dilemma here is between a legal decision of following the rule of law vs ethical decision of helping senior citizens with compassion.

    The stakeholders here are the old man and wife in particular, BPL category vulnerable senior citizens at large, doctor, panchayat, NGOs , concerned discisive district officer.

    Rakesh can talk to the old couple and meet with the surgeon with the prime Focus to understand the details of condition, health and care required post surgery. Various options as short term response could be – to allow benefit which is violative of duty, to provide financial aid which can’t be replicated for others due to limited personal and professional capacity, or a more holistic approach to involve Sarpanch and Panchayat with a view of inclusion of senior citizens in Pradhanmantri Jan Aushadhi kendra benefit, local NGOs, CSR, crowd funding by noble samatarians can also be deployed for the covering additional incidental charges.
    Senior citizens can be helped with availing Integrated programme for older persons scheme, MPLAD funds,
    Pradhanmantri Jan aarogya Yojana covering up to 5 lacs per family for secondary and tertiary hospitalization,Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana,Atal vayo Abhyudaya Yojana and Kendriya Annapurna Yojana for availing food security if needed. If possible, in future resources should be allocated to tackle availing government schemes by senior citizens through setting up a helpline and delivering last mile service of filing forms at home itself e.g delivery of voter ID, passport at home. There should be proper documentation of grievances to address or prioritize gaps in future schemes. This case cannot be taken in isolation as there would be many more vulnerable people in need.

    The long-term solutions can be evaluating the health care scheme and reporting suggestions to higher ups for inserting subcategory for economically weaker senior citizens with allocated funds separately, covering landless poor, old people without children or without permanent income, with a view of covering incidental charges as well. Private participation, old age organizations, or giving startup funding to solve this problem creatively may also be welcomed.

  38. Rakesh is a responsible district level officer, who enjoys the trust of his higher officials. Rakesh is pushed to a conflict between legal and ethical decision. As an honest officer he cannot cross the rules that are made by the government but as a human he is concerned about the condition of the old couples.

    This situation creates dilemma for taking a decision. He cannot emphasize the couple because of their situation nor can’t he help himself for everyone like the same. Decision must be taken only if it helps to benefit everyone who will face these type of situations in future.
    So, Rakesh can help the old couple by educating them with other schemes like Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana that aims to provide healthcare through an insurance providing 5 lakh per family for poor and middle class which they are eligible and Rakesh should follow-up with the couple and ask them to give feedback. If the couples doesn’t fall into any schemes then he can think other options.

    As short term solution to the problem Rakesh can seek help from NGO and other fund raising organizations.

    As long term goal he can improve the structure of the government hospital so that these type of issues may be avoided in future.

  39. 1 hidden details :
    * trust of higher officials
    * honesty
    * surgeon is ready to do free surgery
    * only the cost of incidental charges

    2 ethical issues :
    Since the old couple Doe’s not fall under the criterion B they could not avail the beneficiaries under the health care scheme and rakesh could not also give an excuse to them since he is honest and entrusted by their superior

    3 stakeholders:
    Rakesh
    Old couples
    Not eligible applicants for the scheme
    Govt Health beneficiaries department

    4 * short term response
    Since rakesh is the district leave officer for medical beneficiaries he will have ideas about many health schemes that could bare the cost of the old couples
    So he can provide a path to avil the scheme eligible to the old couple

    * long term response

    i Should create a help desk in the medical Beneficiary office who should take care of the ineligible applicant and provide theme the scheme which they are eligible

    ii Govt can create a croud funding website for health support and can enroll the eligible scheme applicant ( only after consulting them)so that people in and around the India could donate as much as possible
    ” Even a small amount from a group of individuals could save a life ”

    5 empathy analysis :

    Since the old couples made to the office with the hope of getting the scheme to get treated in the hospital its the moral duty of rakesh to made them avail to the surgery.
    * He should search ways to fund the couples officially and legally if not
    * He can do it as an fellow human being
    By sourcing the money from his high profile contacts since they only require incidental charges

  40. In my opinion Rakesh faces an ethical dilemma between the law and empathy. He is a responsible district level officer, who have the trust of his higher officers. He is knowing for his honesty, the government entrusted with the responsibility of identifying the beneficiaries under a health care scheme meant for senior citizens. As an honest, sincere and responsible district officer, Rakesh can never break the law. But in this given criteria those old couples are not involved in the category ‘b’.
    In that case, he would have to see the senior surgeon and find out about the old man’s health condition. Then he should inquire whether there is free treatment for such disease in our government hospitals. If there any free treatment they can proceed. Or check out other government health care plans like Aayushman Bharat, Pradhan Manthri Aarogya Yojana etc, and help them find a plan that suits the elderly couple. Otherwise he can approach any NGO’s, charitable trust or higher authorities. Definitely he can solve the dilemma through this way and he can follow the law and at the same time he can show his empathy towards the society.

  41. Ans – Empathy and compassion to weaker section is a quintessential quality in a Public servant. But it should not be at the behest of Objective Rule based decision making

    This case study presents a dilemma as to how we will balance Empathy along with Rule based Code of conduct.

    All decisions will be taken keeping the ground reality in mind and in sync with qualities worthy of a civil servant. They will be helped regardless of the fact that belonged to my village as my compassion is not conditional.

    Stakeholders
    ————
    1. Me (Rakesh as a duty bound officer)
    2. Old couple in need of help .
    3. Other people who are in need but not covered in the scheme.
    4. People who are eligible for the scheme.
    5. Govt at large.
    6. Hospitals especially govt hospitals

    Options avaialable
    ——————
    1. To pay for their fees by my self
    Pro
    1. Couple will be helped immediately
    2. Ethical satisfaction in my mind that i helped them.
    Cons
    1. Showed Sympathy over empathy
    2. Short term solution.
    3. My own financial constraints after a point of time.
    4. Selective empathy shown

    2. Allow them benefits in this scheme
    Pro
    1. Couple will be helped.
    2. Sympathetic accomodation

    Cons
    1. Less Objective ; Rule bending & morally dishonest choice.
    2. Targeted group for whom the scheme is intended will suffer.
    3. Breach of trust when seniors will find I acted against rules.
    4. My image in the office & professinal circle will suffer

    3. Crowd funding
    Pros
    1. Couple will be helped
    2. Participatory involvement of civil society groups

    Cons
    1. It takes time to crowd fund.
    2. Social contract b/w govt & people suffers.
    3. just helps one couple & not similar couples at large.

    4. Provide them benefits PM Jan Arogya yojana
    Pros
    1. It covers 3 day pre hospitalization and 15 days post hospitalization charges along with medicine cost.
    2. Trust in govt emboldened , social contract upheld
    3. It provides cover upto 5 lakhs hence in future they can seek remedy for any other future ailment directly to empanelled hospitals.
    4. All pre–existing conditions are covered from day one.

    I will chose Option 4 as it follows Both Virtue ethics of empathy towards weaker sections & deontolical principle of Duty to serve old people. Also if enough people covered in PMJAY it will be a utilitarian scheme.

    Long term solution
    ——————-
    1. Push to geriatric care
    2. Enroll more people in PMJAY.
    3. Convey to govt about needs to similar sections of people who are not covered in the current scheme.
    4. Create awareness about govt schemes amongst masses using Gram Panchayats.
    5. Creation of Old age care Homes in the district for people who don’t have offspring to look after them.
    6. Empanelment of more Private and govt hospitals
    7. Improvement of service delivery & treatment in Public hospitals.

  42. As we know Rakesh is a responsible district level officer . Rakesh should implement the law first ,it’s an ethical dilemma on imotional intelligence and empathy too. May be in this situation there majority criteria are fulfilled but we can’t say that it’s a beneficiary of that scheme.
    So the couple is not are the beneficiary to this scheme but every person has the right to life so we can’t sit down with this dilemma.
    So we consult to the senior officer and try to find a an ultimate solution.
    Because we have the positive things in future so we talk with our senior officer as well as local NGO to come with a solution.
    Way forward we should make an other scheme with an universal people neither any sex, cast, nor religion.

  43. Important details:
    1. Old couple residents of village in district since their birth so probably cannot receive help in other districts/states.
    2. No child to support, man cannot work.
    3. Couple fulfils all criteria except they don’t belong to reserved category
    4. Incidental charges of treatment likely to be more than their annual income, hence financially unviable without support
    Stakeholders:
    1. District administration, superiors
    2. Genuine beneficiaries to health scheme
    3. Old couple
    4. Surgeon and hospital staff
    5. Gram panchayat of village
    6. Persons with similar problems
    Ethical issues:
    Empathy v/s Professional integrity
    Participatory Governance:
    Consultation within District administration- Possibilities in Government healthcare setup, Gram panchayat, MP, and MLA of the area.
    Consultation with nearby district administration- Learning from handling of similar issues in nearby/other districts.
    Can the couple be referred to any other district?
    Consultation with working NGO’s- Possibility of a financial aid from different NGO’s.
    Root Cause Analysis: Old couple needs urgent help and cannot be accommodated in the current scheme. Other avenues to be explored to help them.
    Remedial Action (Short term):
    Exploring for the exceptions to the eligibility criteria.
    Exploring other government schemes for senior citizens and vulnerable groups like Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana, Senior Citizens’ welfare fund, Varishta Mediclaim Policy.
    Exploring the possibility of benefitting them with MPLADS, MLA funds and panchayat funds.
    Availability of generic medicines to bring down the actual cost of treatment, Possibility of same treatment in government healthcare setup.
    Financial Aid from active NGOs.
    Possible Treatment with complementary and alternative medicine.
    Corrective Action (Long term): Recommending to superiors/policy makers to include similarly placed persons.
    Strengthening of Government healthcare system in District.
    Developing active communication with all working NGOs.
    Strengthening implementation of different healthcare schemes.

  44. Assignment:
    *Stakeholders:-Government, Beneficiaries, NGOs and Foundations,The kind surgeon, the old man,Public representatives,Rakesh(District Level Officer).

    As mentioned Rakesh is a responsible and honest district level officer. In the current scenario, he is trapped in a dilemma that whether he should help the old man by breaking the rules of this policy and by showing his sympathy or as a honest officer he should reject the proposal according to the rules and criterion and give them some other appropriate alternatives.
    According to me Rakesh should honestly deny this proposal and give them some other support and alternative for their betterment. Firstly, he should make them aware and enroll them for the eligible programs and policies like NPHCE,Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana,etc which is benefiting senior citizens belonging to various classes and sections.If there is an urgency for the treatment,he may contact to some NGOs and Foundations to sort out the problem as the progress of these government programs and policies may be delayed. If however the problem wouldn’t sorted he may contact to government representatives like MLAs,MPs and request them them to co-ordinate to avail the amount of MPs,MLAs funds
    which may be proved to be panacea to sort out the problems of old couple.
    He should also take an initiative to make people aware and enroll them for various programs and policies according to their eligibility to prevent them from being trapped in such kind of problematic situations and to provide them the facilities given by the government to every classes and sections of society much more effectively.

  45. 1)Rakesh as said above,is an honest officer and has earned the respect and faith of his seniors through the same,he has to deal with this case diligently.

    2)If we think of it in one aspect here, then He might make a request to his superiors regarding the case of this old couple,so as to make an exception to this particular beneficiary scheme.But then the problem will be , People will be flocking down to his office for same such requests and exception for them to be included.
    3) But the main point here is the b) which states it is reserved for certain communities,not for all.
    Keeping this in mind,Rakesh will have to find a way to help this couple by himself.
    4)The couple is concerned about hospitalisation charges,medicines etc upto of 1 lakh rupees.There are charitable trusts in the country,there are government hospitals wherein the fee might be less,Rakesh can help the couple therein.Also he might have friends or some colleagues,who can make an arrangement for the old couple to complete their concerned medical operation.
    5) There are many crowd fund sites,also some NGOs which might be useful for Rakesh which will help in lessening the burden of the old couple
    6) )Rakesh as said above,is an honest officer and has earned the respect and faith of his seniors through the same,he has to deal with this case diligently.
    7)The simplest and most effective way to help the old couple,can be through yushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana,a national health insurance scheme to provide free access to healthcare for low income earners in the country.Considering that both of them are not able to work this scheme may be beneficial
    8) For the old couple,to love a dignified life ahead after the completion of the operation,Rakesh can certain their income through Atal Pension Yojana, a government-backed pension scheme primarily targeted at the unorganised sector
    9)When it comes for financial support/aid for old couples , efficiently and speedily,Rakesh can help them to subscribe to Pradhan Mantri Vaya Vandana Yojana (PMVVY) through the LIC website online,an immediate pension plan which can be purchased online by paying a lump sum amount,the income rate is 7.4%per annum

  46. Assignment:
    Case Study for UPSC.

    In the given scenario Rakesh faces ethical dilemma between Empathy and Laws.
    Rakesh as a district level officer must ensure that the task given to him for his honesty and good reputation for which he must win the Government entrusted responsibility of identifying the beneficiaries under a health scheme for old senior beneficiaries.
    As he needs to implement the specific scheme only to the specific community beneficiaries who fulfills the basic criteria for the scheme. Unlike the old couples who did not fulfill the criteria B for he must he must make sure to follow the adequate law against the scheme.
    As Rakesh besides his emotions and Empathy he couldn’t blindly help the old couple as this will waste the seats the other beneficiaries of that specific community.
    But what he can do for the couple’s is suggesting an alternatively option and educating them for other schems for the couple as per the criteria like Ayush, Health Care for Senior Citizen Scheme etc,
    Aa an officer Rakesh is confident and experienced with lots other alternative option likes funding from NGOs , Civil Society, sponsors scheme with could benefit the couple in the short term benefit which alternative plays a long time role Rakesh career as a civil servant.
    He must ensure all the stakeholders could get more benefit and also to other beneficiaries who couldn’t fulfill the criteria like the old couples with same issues because as an officer he must play a neutral role for the public and also not compromising other beneficiaries.
    And finally this leads to a proper balance between Empathy and Law.

  47. Rakesh , being a responsible district officer , enjoys trust of his higher officials. Since government entrusted him with the responsibility of identifying the beneficiaries under a health care scheme meant for senior citizens so he should do the task with full honesty and sincerity.
    Being an honest officer he cannot break the rules of the scheme because by doing so it will lead to chaos everywhere. He should show empathy towards the senior citizens and should give another way. He Can give alternative options to them by telling the schemes government had started to help the senior citizens. Schemes like Ayushman Bharat , National
    Programme for the Health care of elderly introduced in 2010 , Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PM-JAY) etc. help the senior citizens of the country. As an officer he might have contacts with several NGOs and civil societies which could help them financially so he can give contacts of such organisations to them. He must take time to find other possible alternative options too but should not break the rules of the scheme.
    As an honest and entrusted officer he must contact the higher officials to introduce schemes that would help the other sections of the society too. Some sections of the society does not have such privileges so he must talk to the seniors to help them too or to give some relaxations in the beneficiaries that are already being introduced.

  48. Rakesh,being responsible district level officer, has the trust of his higher officials and the responsibility of identifying beneficiaries under health care scheme for the needy senior citizens. That the task given to him for his honesty.
    Rakesh is to implement the specific scheme only for specific community beneficiaries. This is the old couples who did not fulfill the criteria b for he must ensure to follow the law against the scheme.
    As it is wrong way to implement the scheme. In ethipal 6: display empathy and proceed with logic to benefit stakeholders. So, we go to alternative solutions. Any other alternative schemes Ayushman bharat, atal pension scheme, varishta mediclaim for that old couple.
    As like ethipal 8 alternative ideas likes funding from NGOs, civil society organisations. He couldn’t fulfill the criteria like this old couples with the same scheme. Because, as an officer he must play a neutral role for the public and he do not compromising other beneficiaries.

  49. As Rakesh is known for his Honesty, and he enjoys the faith of his superiors, Rakesh can approach his superiors with a request to make one exception in this particular case, however this may have a domino effect, then such requests might start flowing in different parts of the districts, making the scheme dysfunctional.

    As incidental cost of hospitalization apart from medicine is an area of concern for the couple, if the district lacks charitable hospitals, or government run hospitals where such procedure is done for free, Rakesh can approach his colleagues of neighboring district, or hospitals in the capital city of his state, or neighboring state whichever is nearby, so that at least one aspect of there concern is addressed.

    He can approach the local political leaders, so that assistance can be granted from their discretionary fund.

    Rakesh can approach corporate houses, to create a fund to provide medicinal assistance for under privileged section of the society, this expenditure can be adjusted with the CSR initiatives of the business houses. This will not only address the plight of this couple but also other people who might be left out of this scheme, but the matter went unreported.

    Further as the man is unable to work and assuming the woman is unemployed, Rakesh can make arrangements to include the women in Rural employment generation programe under Khadi and village industries commission or some other initiative, so that not only they gain some sort of financial independence, but also the dignity of the old couple stays intact.

    As Rakesh has exhausted all option of including the older couple in any other schemes and schemes in line of Swasthya sathi (WB) are not available that particular area, rakesh will need to take in a multi prong approach. He will need to approach the Local MP (MPLAD) and try and find a place even in nearby areas where the procedure can be done free of cost. For long term medicinal support CSR initiatives will be the best alternative, along with making arrangements of employment to solve the long term problem.

    Once this is done, Rakesh must find out how many people are leftout of this schemes who are unable to meet one or more criteria but in need of help in his district. If the number is huge, the rakesh must approach his superiors so that the ambit of the schemes can be enlarged.

  50. Rakesh , being a responsible district officer , enjoys trust of his higher officials. Since government entrusted him with the responsibility of identifying the beneficiaries under a health care scheme meant for senior citizens so he should do the task with full honesty and sincerity.
    Being an honest officer he cannot break the rules of the scheme because by doing so it will lead to chaos everywhere. He should show empathy towards the senior citizens and should give another way. He Can give alternative options to them by telling the schemes government had started to help the senior citizens. Schemes like Ayushman Bharat , National
    Programme for the Health care of elderly introduced in 2010 , Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PM-JAY) etc. help the senior citizens of the country. As an officer he might have contacts with several NGOs and civil societies which could help them financially so he can give contacts of such organisations to them. He must take time to find other possible alternative options too but should not break the rules of the scheme.
    As an honest and entrusted officer he must contact the higher officials to introduce schemes that would help the other sections of the society too. Some sections of the society does not have such privileges so he must talk to the seniors to help them too or to give some relaxations in the beneficiaries that are already being introduced.

  51. According to me , Rakesh is the district official and he have to respect both like his higher officials and also to look after the welfare of the society and their needs.He have to make research through his subordinates to whom should be given scheme.scheme’s should be given to beneficial person.so,that here old people who were reserved community and because they didn’t even has money to make their operation successful,so that rakesh should give beneficial scheme to that old people so that their life’s will be really good.secound thing government didn’t mention that to give beneficiaries scheme to certain people like they have mention age and community and income but not names of the people to whom should he give ,so that old people may be belonged reserved community and their age above 60+ and their income less than 1lakh he can proceed and give scheme to old people.third thing when they are out of the rules which the government given he can provide them other health insurance schemes schemes which government was providing 8 lakhs rs on each family and NGOS they can help them and politician can help them by giving private Money .
    To sum up rakesh can help them ,not only one way to help the old people their are different ways . because he is a government body he can proceed.
    Thank you

  52. Assignment:
    Case Study for UPSC.

    In the given scenario Rakesh faces ethical dilemma between Empathy and Laws.
    Rakesh as a district level officer must ensure that the task given to him for his honesty and good reputation for which he must win the Government entrusted responsibility of identifying the beneficiaries under a health scheme for old senior beneficiaries.
    As he needs to implement the specific scheme only to the specific community beneficiaries who fulfills the basic criteria for the scheme. Unlike the old couples who did not fulfill the criteria B for he must he must make sure to follow the adequate law against the scheme.
    As Rakesh besides his emotions and Empathy he couldn’t blindly help the old couple as this will waste the seats the other beneficiaries of that specific community.
    But what he can do for the couple’s is suggesting an alternatively option and educating them for other schems for the couple as per the criteria like Ayush, Health Care for Senior Citizen Scheme etc,
    Aa an officer Rakesh is confident and experienced with lots other alternative option likes funding from NGOs , Civil Society, sponsors scheme with could benefit the couple in the short term benefit which alternative plays a long time role Rakesh career as a civil servant.
    He must ensure all the stakeholders could get more benefit and also to other beneficiaries who couldn’t fulfill the criteria like the old couples with same issues because as an officer he must play a neutral role for the public and also not compromising other beneficiaries.
    And finally this leads to a proper balance between Empathy and Law.

    • Hi ,

      Well attempted answer.You have understood the case very well and at the same time you have also taken good points from the class discussion.
      However , few things you need to work upon :

      1. Ethical dilemma is between ethical decision and legal decision. Rather than between empathy and laws.
      2. You should focus on the appropriate use of terminologies which is very important part of ethics answers. It is equally important for getting good score.
      3. Explore more important and subtle issues like conflict between subjective responsibility and objective responsibility , right to life with dignity and right to access health services , equity / fairness , welfare state, etc.
      4. As discussed in the class you need to apply ethical reasoning in solving case studies.
      5. Explore merits and demerits of each options. Then finally choose the best possible option and give proper justification.

  53. Rakesh, being a responsible district level officer, has the trust of his higher officials and the responsibility of identifying beneficiaries under healthcare scheme for the needy senior citizens. On considering the situation of the old couple, Rakesh has the option of going through the files of different healthcare schemes which are more relevant to the couple’s situation and fulfill all the mandatory criterias. Rakesh should also check if the scheme needs cent percent fulfillment of the eligibility of the scheme for the old couple and as a legal healthcare officer, could take proper action. As a civil officer, his foremost duty is to help the public and introduce them with various schemes available for their benefits. On this basis, he could use his virtual ethics to help the old couple. Being a good human being, he has the choice to help the couple at his own level. He could take help of some fundraising NGOs and make sufficient financial arrangements. Being a responsible officer, he could personally help them financially. Moreover, as a responsible and trustworthy officer, he could use this perk for the old couple by informing his higher officials and arrange some relaxation in the eligibility of the old couple for the scheme.

  54. Rakesh being a responsible district level officer faces an administrative dilemma between an ethical decision and a legal decision. As per Kant’s Deontology, if Rakesh acts in the way he thinks is morally right and makes an exception with the scheme to include the old couple, he might not be legally right. It can also lead to a complete administrative chaos and he might also breach the trust of his higher officials. Chances are also high that another deserving couple from the reserved community might miss out on the benefits of the scheme.

    As Rakesh has realised that the couple cannot be included in the particular scheme, he can collect the details from the old couple and check if they can be covered under any other government schemes like Ayushman Bharath, elderly specific schemes like Integrated Program for Older Persons, Rashtriya Vayoshri Yojana, as they are residents of a village since birth. He can also check if any funds can be arranged from the local MLAs and MPs from the available MLALAD and MPLAD funds. Once all the official routes are exhausted and if the couple still does not receive help, Rakesh can engage with the local NGOs and other social service volunteers to raise funds for the couple through crowdfunding methods.

    But if exceptions like this are received often, as a long term measure Rakesh can communicate them to the government and seek the policy framers help to widen the scope of beneficiaries and if possible also to include a few clauses that can provide relaxation in the eligibility criteria when a deserving beneficiary like the old couple seek for help. Improving the government hospital infrastructure can also help to a larger extent as medicine and treatment would be free of cost. Inclusion of old couples like them under old-age pension schemes like PM- Vaya Vandana Yojana, Indira Gandhi national old-age pension scheme etc can also provide them with an assured disposable amount every month which can be used at times of emergency,

    • Hi Harshitha ,

      I can see very good understanding of the situation in your answer. Flow of writing as well as logical development of solution is also fine. However , in case study solution you need to follow some standard format – brief description of situation , various implicit or explicit issues involved , stake holders , etc.
      Apart from this explore systematically various options with merits and demerits of each.

      Try to see things in wider perspective such as whatever Rakesh is going to do should lead to or strengthen ethical governance. Here you must have proper understanding of ethical gov and should understand difference between ethical and good governance.

      You must have come across through news about various examples of public servants who have come out with something like out of the box solution. Such real examples will help you in getting better insights.

  55. In the given scenario the problem is that, the concerned couple do not fall in the reserved category. So, here Rakesh being a responsible district level officer should empathize on the situation, but at the same time act smartly and be obedient to the law of land. Being smart suggests that he needs to fill in with information with regards to the different schemes/policies/insurances relative to categories other than reserved community, such that people of such class are also benefitted.
    Schemes like Ayushman bharat, aam aadmi Bima yojana, employees state insurance scheme, mahatma jyothiba Phule Jan arogya yojana, universal health insurance scheme etc…Could be suggested and educated to the couple such that the couple, goes through the criteria and choose any scheme which meets all their requirements and also which is more beneficial for them.

  56. Rakesh is a responsible and honest officer. For his honesty and good reputation, the Government entrusted him with the responsibility of identifying the beneficiaries under a health care scheme for senior citizens. In this given scenario he is facing ethical dilemmas between empathy and law as the old couple satisfied all the other criteria except the criterion b.This particular scheme is made for some specific community. If he gives the opportunity to that old couple that means he is robbing the opportunity from one deserving person of that specific community from this scheme. So,Rakesh has no option here.As a responsible professional he can’t give this opportunity towards that old couple. But what can Rakesh do he could channel his emotions of empathy towards the couple to a more positive way.As a responsible civil servant to ensure the service to the citizens, Rakesh should consult with them, discuss their problems and suggest them alternative solutions. He can educate them with different kind of Govt. Schemes like-Ayushman Bharat ,Atal pension scheme, Varishta mediclaim policy etc that they can get the benefit of any of those.He can also suggest the name of such NGO’s who help such kind of people regarding health issues. Rakesh should ensure that the old couple could get the benefit of any of these schemes and asked them to visit him after 3 days and tell him whether the work is done or not.Here he can act as a role reverser. Parallelly to arrange money for the couple he can suggest other way out like through crowd funding, through civil people,through various sponsors after following rules and regulations. He can’t suggest anything that he can’t do repeatedly as well as he must ensure that couple could fulfill their requirements by getting the benefits of any of those schemes and wayouts.
    As Rakesh enjoys the trust of his higher officials, so,he can approach to his higher officials and political dignitaries for raising funds .He can also appeal to his seniors and the policy makers of Government that for a long term solution this kind of scope of such scheme should be enlarged or another scheme for such people who is not being able to address by any kind of that current scheme should be come up.Such scheme should be made for only those targeted people. Here he can add other wayouts like improving the infrastructure in the Government hospitals more that the people don’t need to go to private hospitals for their treatment. In this way Rakesh can handle the situation and ensure that both the laws and empathy are met together in a balanced way.

  57. In the given scenario Rakesh faces ethical dilemma between empathy and Laws.

    It is his empathy to give the old couple the benefits of the scheme for which they don’t meet the criteria b, that is belonging to a reserved community.

    But that would also mean breach of trust his higher officials have on him, more than that breach of law, which might even set a negative example for other officials, losing out on his duty as a responsible district officer.
    Also, there is a possibility that a deserving reserved community member might lose out the benefit of the scheme, if there is any upper cap for the scheme fund.

    Now in the interest of both empathy and duty, Rakesh should first consult the old couple to get details, so as to support them through any other applicable health schemes such as Ayushmaan Bharat.

    If in case, no other schemes can be used, Rakesh should consult other related officials so as to find some specific exceptions applicable to this case to get the couple the required 1 Lakh expense.

    After exhausting all available official support, Rakesh could discuss with the surgeon who is willing to perform the surgery without any charges, to find some possible ways to fund the 1Lakh hospitalisation and medicine expenses.

    When that doesn’t solve the issue, Rakesh could get support of the NGOs working for old people and in health sector, and other civil societies and even some CSR people to directly support the old couple. Or as a last resort could get their help indirectly to crowd source for the couple.

    If many such cases are evident, Rakesh could even write to the policy makers of such a requirement in health sector with facts, addressing such situations in the long term, while also following up on the couple to ensure their expenses are met, ensuring that both the laws and empathy are met.

  58. Rakesh as a responsible district level officer, For his reputation the government entrusted him with the responsibility of identifying beneficiaries under health care scheme specially for senior citizens , now considering the dilemma rakesh facing in the situation of old couple as legal district level officer , he shall cross verify the criteria for schemes such as accuracy of eligibility criteria if scheme demands 100% accuracy , Rakesh as a legal officer shall do his duty by considering old couple as not eligible for particular scheme which they came up with their application, But on the core level duty of an civil servant is to ensure service to the citizens. For that matter, as an administrator of health care schemes, Rakesh is enabled to have files of various schemes for senior citizens by central and state government for the respective district. Considering all the schemes, Rakesh may figure out an explicit and more beneficial scheme which fulfill the eligibility criteria of old couple. If there are no such schemes, Rakesh is not able to help old couple legally. Now his deontology is clear so that he can consider his virtue ethics further to help old couple, before being an officer rakesh as a human has empathy towards old couple. And for short term solution, he can reach out to NGO’s and reputative individuals in the district to help old couple whereas any financial aid would certainly make a significant difference, for long term solution, rakesh as a responsible officer who enjoys the trust of higher officials can write to higher officials about introducing new health care schemes for people like this old couple who are unable to enjoy the privilege of health care schemes meant for senior citizen.

  59. Rakesh being a responsible and honest officer must guide the old couples for there ignorance regarding different schemes. Here Rakesh is facing ethical vs legal dilemma and in such case the stakeholders i.e. the old couple, need to be properly guided by providing clear realistic picture of what other NGO’s can provide them rather then going after not so correct scheme in there case.
    Rakesh can review the existent policies and and ask the policy makers to keep in mind and give more benefits for such type of couples in future regarding financial aid.
    Rakesh can enlist all the post retirements benefits and create awareness to Right to access Information about government schemes. Infact all these activities done by Rakesh can enhance his Emotional Intelligence which has been stated as the third stage after courtesy and civility. It compels people to treat each other as “human” and not just “roles”.

  60. According to me,Rakesh should not give the benefits of the scheme to the old couple because giving benefit to one couple is not main problem ,problem is that there will be many other couple who will have same problem so an officer can not go against the law or rule made by government.In this case Rakesh should suggest them other health schemes like Pradhan mantri vaya Vandana scheme,NPHCE,varishta mediclaim policy etc and also there are many NGO’S who help such kind of people regarding these problems and Rakesh should ensure that the old couple get the benefit from any one of these schemes.Also,he should talk to their head members about new health scheme in which there should be no such criteria dealing with these kind of problems.Every district have government hospitals so Rakesh should visit and ensure that every person in that hospital is getting benefitted , beneficiary provided by government.

  61. Rakesh, an honest district officer, has the responsibility to identify the beneficiaries. But an old couple fulfilling all the criteria is in immediate need. The couple does not fulfill criterion (B): belonging to a reserved community.

    Stakeholders:
    Primary- The old man and his wife
    Secondary- Rakesh, Doctor, Villagers (known people)

    Issues:
    Primary- Should Rakesh provide the old man the benefits of the scheme, even if he does not fulfill all criteria?
    Secondary- Should Rakesh provide him financial aid?

    Options available to Rakesh:
    1) Allow the benefits to the old man under the scheme.
    Merits- the old man will immediately get relieved.
    Demerits- Rakesh will hamper ‘The Rule of Law’ and the trust of the higher officials.

    2) Financial aid by Rakesh
    Merits- the old man will immediately get relieved.
    Demerits – This action can not be repeated frequently, when in need in the future, because Rakesh has limited funds personally and professionally.

    3)Appealing to NGOs, CSR fundings, known people of the old man and Sarpanch (Head Of Gram Panchayat) of the village.
    Merits- Sarpanch and known people can help immediately, finding there is no one to help the old.
    Demerits- Difficult negotiations with NGOs etc.

    4)Make the old man able to bear the cost himself.
    Merits- Teach him about many government schemes like Ayushman Bharat.
    Demerits- It will consume much time.

    Recommendation:
    Rakesh should respond by choosing option 3 because the old man is living in the village since his birth, so financial help from villagers and Sarpanch is firmly expected.
    Moreover, option 4 enables the old man to tackle such situations in near future.

    Long Term Solution:
    Approaching to an old age organization, to secure the old man’s livelihood with his wife.

    The recommendation is based on the Deontological Principle, “Follow only the principle that you want others to follow.”

  62. According to me Rakesh should give the benefit of the scheme to the old couples , as the following things are not brought in the norms – It is not mentioned in the criteria that it is mandatory for the beneficiaries to have attained all the criteria.
    – Fulfill two or more criteria only then they will get the benefit of the scheme.
    – If even one of the criteria is not met then the couple are deprived of the benefits of the scheme etc.
    Therefore, it is proved that Rakesh should give positive response because the relevant things have not been included in the criteria which proves that the old couple should not get the benefit of the scheme because they did not meet the criteria (b).

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